The Battle of Buxar was a battle fought between the English Forces and a joint army of the Nawab of Oudh, Nawab of Bengal, and the Mughal Emperor in 1764. The battle was the result of misuse of trade privileges granted by the Nawab of Bengal and also the colonialist ambitions of the East India Company
Background of the Battle of Buxar
Before the Battle of Buxar, one more battle was fought. It was the Battle of Plassey, the gave the British a firm foothold over the region of Bengal. As a result of the Battle of Plassey, Siraj-Ud-Daulah was dethroned as the Nawab of Bengal and was replaced by Mir Jafar (Commander of Siraj’s Army). After Mir Jafar became the new Bengal Nawab, the British made him their puppet but Mir Jafar got involved with the Dutch East India Company. Mir Qasim (son-in-law of Mir Jafar) was supported by the British to become the new Nawab and under the pressure of the company, Mir Jafar decided to resign in favour of Mir Qasim. A pension of Rs 1,500 per annum was fixed for Mir Jafar.
Reasons that led to the Battle of Buxar are given below:
- Mir Qasim wanted to be independent and shifted his capital to Munger Fort (Bihar) from Murshidabad in Calcutta.
- He also hired foreign experts to train his army, some of whom were in direct conflict with the British.
- He treated Indian merchants and English as same, without granting any special privileges for the latter.
- These factors fuelled the English to overrthrow him and war broke out
|Mir Qasim – (Administering Bengal in place of Mir Jafar – Nawab of Bengal)||He disliked misuse of dastak, farmans by the English, hence tried to conspire against them by forming an alliance with Nawab of Awadh and Mughal Emperor Shah Alam|
|Shuja-Ud-Daulah – Nawab of Awadh (Oudh)||Was a part of a confederacy with Mir Qasim and Shah Alam-II|
|Shah Alam-II – Mughal Emperor||He wanted to overthrow English from Bengal|
|Hector Munro – British Army Major||He led the battle from the English side|
|Robert Clive||Signed the treaties with Shuja-Ud-Daulah and Shah Alam-II after winning the battle|
Contenders in Battle of Buxar
The Battle of Buxar
When the battle broke out in 1763, the English gained successive victories at Katwah, Murshidabad, Giria, Sooty, and Munger. Mir Qasim fled to Awadh (or Oudh) and formed a confederacy with the Shuja-Ud-Daulah (Nawab of Awadh) and Shah Alam-II (Mughal Emperor). Mir Qasim wanted to recover Bengal from the English. Read the course of battle in the points below:
- Mir Qasim fled to Oudh
- He planned a confederacy with Shuja-Ud-Daulah and Shah Alam-II in a final bid to overthrow the English from Bengal
- Mir Qasim’s soldiers met the English army troops directed by Major Munro in 1764.
- The joint armies of Mir Qasim defeated by the British.
- Mir Qasim absconded from the battle and the other two surrendered to the English army.
- The battle of Buxar ended with the Treaty of Allahabad in 1765.
Result of Battle of Buxar
- Mir Qasim, Shuja-Ud-Daulah and Shah Alam-II lost the battle on October 22, 1764.
- Major Hector Munro won a decisive battle and Robert Clive had a major role in that.
- English became a great power in northern India.
- Mir Jafar (Nawab of Bengal) handed over districts of Midnapore, Burdwan and Chittagong to the English for the maintenance of their army.
- The English were also permitted duty-free trade in Bengal, except for a duty of two percent on salt.
- After the death of Mir Jafar, his minor son, Najim-Ud-Daulah, appointed nawab, but the real power of administration lay in the hands of the naib-subahdar, who could be appointed or dismissed by the English.
- Clive made political settlements with Emperor Shah Alam-II and Shuja-Ud-Daulah of Awadh in the Treaty of Allahabad.
Treaty of Allahabad (1765)
Treaty of Allahabad between Robert Clive & Shuja-Ud-Daulah:
- Shuja had to surrender Allahabad and Kara to Shah Alam-II
- He was made to pay Rs 50 lakh to the Company as war indemnity; and
- He was made to give Balwant Singh (Zamindar of Banaras) full possession of his estate.
Treaty of Allahabad between Robert Clive & Shah Alam-II:
- Shah Alam was commanded to reside at Allahabad which was ceded to him by Shuja-Ud-Daulah under the Company’s protection
- The emperor had to issue a Farman granting the Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to the East India Company in lieu of an annual payment of Rs 26 lakh;
- Shah Alam had to abide by a provision of Rs 53 lakh to the Company in return for the Nizamat functions (military defence, police, and administration of justice) of the said provinces.