Background and course
- The third Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao died in 1761 due to shock after his defeat at the Third Battle of Panipat.
- His son Madhav Rao I succeeded him. Madhav Rao I was able to recover some of the Maratha power and rerritories which they had lost in the Battle of Panipat.
- The English were aware of the growing Maratha power.
- When Madhav Rao I died, there was a tussle for power in the Maratha camp.
- His brother Narayan Rao became the Peswa but his uncle Raghunath Rao wanted to become the Peshwa. For this, he sought the help of the English
- So, the Treaty of Surat in 1775 was signed according to which Raghunath Rao ceded Salsette and Bassein to the English and in return he was given 2500 soldiers.
- The British and army of Raghunath Rao attacked the Peshwa and won.
- The British Calcutta Council under Warren Hastings annulled this treaty and a new treaty, the Treaty of Purandar was signed in 1776 between the Calcutta Council and Nana Phadnavis, a Maratha minister.
- Accordingly, Raghunath Rao was given a pension only and Salsette was retained by the British.
- But the British establishment at Bombay violated this treaty and Sheltered Raghunath Rao.
- In 1777, Nana Phadnavis went against his treaty with the Calcutta Council and granted a port on the west coast to the French.
- This led the British to advance a force towards Pune. There was a battle at Wadgaon near Pune in which the Marathas under Mahadji Shinde secured a decisive victory over the English.
- The English were forced to sign the Treaty of Wadgaon in 1779.
- There was a series of battles at the end of which the Treaty of Salbai was signed in 1782. This ended the first Anglo-Maratha war.
Results of War
- The East India Company retained Salsette and Broach.
- It also obtained a guarantee from the Marathas that they would retake their possessions in the Deccan from Hyder Ali of Mysore.
- The Marathas also promised that they would not grant any more territories to the French.
- Raghunath Rao was to receive a pension of Rs 3 lakh every year.
- All territories taken by the British after the Treaty of Purandar were ceded back to the Marathas.
- The English accepted Madhav Rao II (son of Narayan Rao) as the Peshwa
Treaty of Salbai Signed (May 17, 1782)
The Treaty of Salbai, which ended the First Anglo-Maratha War, was signed on 17 May 1782 between the British East India Company and the Marathas. Salbai is situated in Gwalior District, Madhya Pradesh.
- The First Anglo-Maratha War started in 1775 effectively after the signing of the Treaty of Surat between the East India Company at Bombay and Raghunath Rao, uncle of the newly-crowned Peshwa Narayan Rao. Raghunath Rao had nurtured ambitions to become the Peshwa for which he sought British help.
- However, the Calcutta Council of the company supported Narayan Rao and his able minister Nana Phadnavis, who between themselves had signed the Treaty of Purandar (1776) which nullifield the Surat Treaty.
- This new treaty gave the British possession of Salsette and also pensioned off Raghunath Rao.
- But, the Bombay Council’s sheltering of Raghunath Rao and Nana Phadnavis’s granting of a port to the French deteriorated the already strained relations between the English and the Marathas.
- The Battle of Wadgaon followed in which the Marathas, ably led by Mahadji Shinde defeated the English. The English were forced to accept the Treaty of Wadgaon.
- However, more battles ensued between the rivals, and finally, the Treaty of Salbai was signed which effectively ended the hostilities.
- This treaty was signed after a lot of negotiation between the warring groups. As per the treaty, the areas of Salsette and Broach were to be retained by the Company.
- The Marathas, for their part, were to guarantee that they would defeat Mysore’s Hyder Ali and retake the former Maratha Possessions in the Carnatic.
- They also promised not to allow any French settlements in their regions.
- The British, in turn, accepted Narayanrao’s son Madhavrao II as the rightfull Peshwa and pensioned off Raghunathrao.
- They also acknowledged Mahadaji Shinde’s territories west of the River Jumna. All the territories acquired by them after the Treaty of Purandar were given back to the Marathas.
- However, the peace was temporary as the Second Anglo-Maratha War broke out in 1802, twenty years after the Salbai Treaty.