Coverage under social security refers to the scope and extent of the social security benefits and services that are available to eligible individuals or groups. The coverage of social security programs can vary depending on the type of program and the country in which it operates.
In general, coverage under social security can be determined by various factors, such as the type of employment, income level, age, disability, and family status of the individual. For example, social security programs for employed individuals may require mandatory contributions from both employees and employers and provide benefits such as retirement pensions, disability benefits, and survivor benefits. Social security programs for low-income households may provide cash transfers, food assistance, and health care services.
The coverage of social security programs can also be influenced by social and economic factors such as the level of economic development, social inequalities, and demographic changes such as population aging. As such, coverage under social security is an important aspect of social policy and can have significant impacts on the well-being and livelihoods of individuals and families.
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Efforts to extend social security coverage to more people are ongoing in many countries, particularly in developing countries where coverage is often limited. The expansion of social security coverage is seen as an important step towards achieving social protection for all and reducing poverty and inequality.
1. Social Insurance Schemes
ILO defines a social insurance scheme as one that provides benefits for persons of small earnings granted as a legal right in amounts which is the combined contributory efforts of the insured person, the employer and the state.
2. Social Assistance Scheme
It provides financial benefits to persons of small earnings as a right, which can sufficiently fulfil the minimum standard of need. its source of finance is taxation.
3. Universal Social protection or Universal Programmes
Various international conventions and instruments support the development of social security and in 1948, it was declared as basic Human right or universal human right.
“Universal Social Protection ensures that anyone who needs social protection can access it at anytime”
It includes child benefits, pension for old age, maternity benefits, disability, work injury or for those without jobs.
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4. Mutual Benefit Scheme
Mutual Benefit is a type of contract or agreement in which member parties gain some type of advantage or value.
Its aims are –
- To provide financial support to the members
- To provide the habit of thrift amongst the members
- To encourage financial planning amongst the members
- To support the activities of NIMA Branches.
National Integrated Medical Association The National Integrated Medical Association is an Indian non-governmental organisation of general practitioners educated in integrated system of medicine which includes study of Modern Medicine and knowledge of ayurveda/unani/siddha with scientific approach.
5. National Provident Fund Scheme
Under the EPF Scheme, an employee has to pay a certain contribution towards the scheme and an equal contribution is paid by the employer. The employee gets a lump sum amount on retirement, that includes his self-contribution and employer’s contribution.
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