Evolution of Computers timeline best notes pdf

Evolution of computers | Evolution of computers timeline | Evolution of computer generation | Evolution of computer notes | Evolution of computer with pictures | Evolution of computers pdf

Evolution of Computer

Evolution of Computer – The computer is a man-made electronic machine that changes the way we work, live, and play. A machine that has done all this and more now exists in nearly every business and one out of every two households. This incredible invention is the computer. Through this post, we are providing students with Evolution of Computer Generation Notes, PDF and an important list on the evolution of computer timeline.

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Evolution of Computer

Evolution of Computer – The electronic computer has been around for over a half-century, but its ancestor abacus has been around for 2000 years. The computer evolution can be seen from the first wooden abacus to the latest high-speed microprocessor, the computer has changed nearly every aspect of people’s lives for the better.

1. Abacus

The abacus is one of the earliest known computation devices. It is a tool that helps in calculating answers of arithmetic problems. It is simply a wooden rack holding parallel wires on which beads are strung. Calculations are done by manipulating the beads. The abacus was developed in China about 5000 years ago. The abacus was so successful that its use spread from China to many other countries.

2. Pascal Calculator

The first real mechanical calculator was invented by a French scientist and mathematician Blaise Pascal, around 1645. The device was constructed by Interlocking gears representing the numbers 0 to 9. It was only able to do addition and subtraction, so it is called adding machine.

3. Analytical Engine

In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard perfected the idea of the automated weaving loom. Using holes punched into a series of connected cards, Jacquard was able to control the weaving of fabrics. The Jacquard loom not only cut back on the amount of human labor but also allowed for patterns to be stored now on cards and to be utilized over and over again to achieve the same product.

In 1820 Charles Babbage, a British mathematician and inventor, designed and built the mechanical calculator and the Difference Engine on principles that anticipated the modern electronic computer. The concept Babbage put forward was eventually used by engineers in the development of the first computer prototype. For this reason, Charles Babbage is known as the father of computing. Despite ten years of work, Babbage failed to build a fully operational model of Difference or Analytical Engine.

In 1842 Lady Lovelace wrote a demonstration program and her contribution to binary arithmetic was later used by John Von Neumann in developing the modern computer. So she is often regarded as the “first computer programmer”.

4. Herman Hollerith Punch Cards

In 1890 the United States Census Bureau asked Herman Hollerith to find a way to speed up the processing of census data. Herman Hollerith created punched cards that resemble today’s computer cards. He also invented the Hollerith 80-column code and tabulating machine.

5. First Electronic Computer (ENIAC)

Howard Aiken, with his colleagues at Harvard and with some assistance from International Business Machines he had built by 1942 the Mark I, the world’s first program-controlled calculator, an early form of a digital computer. In 1944 John Mauchley, an American Physicist, and J. Presper Eckert, an American engineer, proposed an electronic digital computer, called the Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer (ENIAC), and completed it in 1946 which is regarded as the first successful general digital computer.

6. Stored Program Concept (EDSAC)

According to John Von Neumann’s concept, the operating instructions and data used in processing should be stored inside the computer. Whenever necessary the computer would have the capability to modify these program instructions, during their execution. This concept was incorporated into the EDSAC computer (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer), which was developed at Cambridge University. This computer was capable of storing a sequence of instructions, the equivalent of the first computer program.


It is the short form of Universal Automatic Computer. In 1951 it was introduced and became the first commercially available computer. The UNIVAC 1 was characteristic of the first generation of computers.

Evolution of Computers timeline




Invented by








The earliest computation device

Addition, Subtraction, Square root

Pascal Calculator


Blaise Pascal


The first real Mechanical Calculator

Also, known as Adding Machine

Weaving Loom


Joseph Marie


First Mechanical Loom

Automated weaving loom

working repeatedly on the same pattern

Based on Punched holes to control weaving pattern


Analytical Engine

Charles Babbage


The concept of analytical engine used eventually in the development of the first computer prototype. So, he is known as father of computer.

Herman Tabulating Machine


Herman Hollerith


A device to punch data into card

First electromechanical machine used to store data for census in 1890

Mark 1


Howard Aiken


World’s first program-controlled calculator

The Largest Electro-mechanical computer ever built

Magnetic Drums are used for storage



John Mauchly and J.P. Eckart


Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer

First electronic digital Computer

Used for weather prediction, atomic energy calculation and other scientific uses.



John Von Neumann


Fist computer with internal storage capacity

Capable of storing instruction and data in memory

Used mercury delay lines for memory and vacuum tubes for logic

Able to calculate tables (multiplication) of squares and prime numbers



Eckert and

JW Mauchly



First-generation of computer

Used magnetic tapes as input and output

First general-purpose computer with a large amount of input and output

First commercially available computer

FAQs on the Evolution of Computer

  1. Which is the first calculating device?

    The first calculating device is Abacus.

  2. Who invented the first mechanical calculator?

    The first mechanical calculator was invented by Blaise Pascal.

  3. Who invented the punch card?

    The punch card was invented by Herman Hollerith.

  4. What is the analog computer?

    The analog computer is a machine which works on data which is always changeable.

  5. What is the laptop?

    A laptop is a personal computer designed for mobile use. It is small enough to sit on one’s lap and fits into a briefcase. It integrates most of the components of a desktop computer, including a monitor, a keyboard, a pointer device (also known as a trackpad), speakers, and other drives. It includes a rechargeable battery, so it works anywhere. By using Bluetooth and wi-fi we can access the internet.

Evolution of Computer PDF

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Important MCQs on the Evolution of Computer

1. Which of the following is considered the first mechanical computer?

   a) ENIAC

   b) UNIVAC

   c) Colossus

   d) Difference Engine

   Answer: d) Difference Engine

2. The “von Neumann architecture” of computers is characterized by:

   a) Separate memory and processing units

   b) Use of punch cards for input

   c) Reliance on vacuum tubes

   d) Integrated memory and processing in a single unit

   Answer: a) Separate memory and processing units

3. Which computer language was designed for scientific and engineering calculations?

   a) COBOL


   c) BASIC

   d) C++

   Answer: b) FORTRAN

4. The invention of the microprocessor marked a significant advancement in computer technology. Who is often credited with its invention?

   a) Bill Gates

   b) Steve Jobs

   c) Alan Turing

   d) Ted Hoff

   Answer: d) Ted Hoff

5. Which computer is often considered the first commercially successful personal computer?

   a) Apple I

   b) Altair 8800

   c) IBM PC

   d) Commodore 64

   Answer: a) Apple I

6. The concept of a graphical user interface (GUI) was popularized by which computer system?

   a) Macintosh

   b) IBM System/360

   c) ENIAC

   d) UNIVAC

   Answer: a) Macintosh

7. The term “computer virus” was coined by:

   a) Steve Jobs

   b) Bill Gates

   c) Richard Stallman

   d) Fred Cohen

   Answer: d) Fred Cohen

8. Which of the following is considered the first high-level programming language?

   a) COBOL

   b) Fortran

   c) Assembly language

   d) Short Code

   Answer: d) Short Code

9. What was the name of the first successful mass-produced computer, introduced in the 1950s?

   a) ENIAC

   b) UNIVAC I

   c) Colossus

   d) IBM 650

   Answer: b) UNIVAC I

10. Which computer networking protocol laid the foundation for the modern internet?

    a) TCP/IP

    b) HTTP

    c) FTP

    d) SMTP

    Answer: a) TCP/IP

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Last updated: September 11, 2023 Updated on 9:19 AM