Indian History – Notes for Competitive Exams pdf

in this post, we are covering Indian History’s first chapter “The Introduction”. This is the first post on complete History or it would be better if we say “Complete Indian History and Indian Freedom Struggle”. This subject is a part of General Studies or General Awareness included in most of the exams covered in India. with this entire series, we are trying to cover the complete General Studies – essential topics that ask in UPSC exams, SSC exams, BIS exams, UGC NET, BPSC, UPPCS, State PCS, CDS, Railways – RRB exams, DMRC, DFCCIL, State exams and many more.

If Students want to prepare in a better way then they are suggested to practice topic-wise tests also on the covered topics.


Sources: The Sources of our content for complete General Studies series are NCERT (Both Old and New), LUCENT, and Bipin Chandra and important for Preliminery based or foundation based India's Top Government Exams.
- Exam India (a Part of Nishant eAcademy)

History of India – A introduction

Video in Hindi

When we talk about History, the word is derived from the Greek word Historia Which means research or inquiry or investigation. i.e. history means the knowledge we acquired by investigation. Herodotus (484 BC – 425 BC) was the first real historian of the world who wrote a book the history. He is also known as the father of History.

There was another German historian – Leopold von Ranke. According to him, a historian is actually a person who can define the past in exactly the same way as it was. The Ranke is known as the father of modern history.

History Timeline

History timeline is defined either in BC or in AD. BC is the acronym for Before Christ i.e. Before the birth of Jesus Christ and AD is the acronym for Anno Domini which is a Latin phrase meaning ‘in the year of the Jesus Christ’.

A century in history timeline means a period of 100 years. Millennium means a period of 1000 years. Circa (Ca. or C.) is used when the exact date is not known in the history timeline. Eg. The exact date of Vedic Culture is not known so it is written like [c. 1500BC – 600BC].

Indian History Timeline

German Historian “Christoph Cellarius” divided history into three periods – Ancient, Medieval and Modern. Indian History is also divided according to the Christoph Cellarius into Ancient India, Medieval India and Modern India.

  • Timeline of Ancient India – from the beginning to 647 AD
  • Timeline of Medieval India – 647 AD to 1757 AD
  • Timeline of Modern India – 1757 AD to 1947 AD

Chronology of Indian History

Ancient Period
Pre Historic Period30,00,000 BC – 600 BC
Indus Civilization2500 BC – 1750 BC
Vedic Culture1500 BC – 600 BC
Mahajanapada Period600 BC – 322 BC
Maurya Period322 BC – 185 BC
Post Maurya or Pre Gupta Period185 BC – 319 BC
Gupta Period319 AD – 550 AD
Post Gupta Period or Vardhana Period550 AD – 647 AD
Medieval Period
Early Medieval Period647 AD – 1206 AD
Sultanate Period1206 – 1526
Mughal Period1526-1707
Modern Period
Merchantile Phase1757-1813
Industrial Phase1813-1858
Financial Phase1860 -1947

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