Internet – Best Short Notes

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Internet

Definition of Internet

The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link several billion devices worldwide. It is also known as a “network of networks” that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks.

Various Applications of Internet

  • Exchange messages using e-mail (Electronic mail).
  • Transfer files as well as software.
  • Browse through information on any topic on the web.
  • Communicate in real-time (chat) with others connected to the Internet.
  • Search databases of government, individuals, and organizations.
  • Read news available from leading newsgroups.
  • Send or receive animation and picture files from distant places.
  • Set up a site with information about your company’s products and services.

Important Points to Learn – Internet

  • It was J.C.R. Licklider of the Massachusetts of Technology, who first proposed a global network of computers in 1962, and moved to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to develop it.
  • Leonard Kleinrock developed the theory of packet switching, the basis of Internet connections.
  • On September 2, 1969, Stephen Crocker and Vinton Cerf, two graduate students at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), linked two large computers using a 15-foot cable and tested a new way to exchange data.
  • In January, three other “nodes” were added to this network.
  • The earliest idea of a computer network intended to allow general communication between users of various computers was the ARPANET, the world’s first packet-switching network. It was in December 1969 that ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) went online connecting four major U.S. universities. Designed for research, education, and government organizations, it provides a communications network linking the country in the event that a military attack destroys conventional communications systems.
  • In 1972, E-mail was introduced by Ray Tomlinson, a programmer at Bolt, Beranek, and Newman, an engineering company in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He used the @ to distinguish between the sender’s name and the network name in the email address.

World Wide Web

The World Wide Web commonly known as the Web or www developed founded by Tim Berners – Lee in 1989, is a system of interlinked hypertext documents that are accessed via the Internet. These multimedia pages are ever-changing.

Web Browser

A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.

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Various features of a Web Browser

Menu Bar: The menu bar, located at the very top of the screen, can be accessed using the mouse. Actions that are in black can be performed, while actions that cannot be performed will be in grey or lightened.

Tool Bar: The toolbar is located at the top of the browser; it contains navigational buttons for the Web.
The basic functions of these buttons include:

CommandFunction
HomeOpens or returns to starting page
BackTakes you to the previous page
ForwardTakes you to the next page
PrintPrints current page
StopStops loading a page
ReloadRefresh/redisplays the current page
SearchAccesses search engine

Location bar: The location bar, below the toolbar, is a box labelled “Location,” “GoTo,” or “Address.” You can type in a site’s address, and press the Return or Enter key to open the site.

Status bar: The status bar is located at the very bottom of the browser window. You can watch the progress of a web page download to determine if the host computer has been contacted and text and images are being downloaded.

Scroll bar: The scroll bar is the vertical bar located on the right of the browser window. You can scroll up and down a web page by placing the cursor on the slider control and holding down the mouse button.

A website is a set of related web pages served from a single web domain.

The Uniform Resource Locator abbreviated as URL is the Address for websites. Most of them begin with http (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol), followed by a colon and two slashes. In most web browsers, the URL of a web page is displayed on top inside an address bar. An example of a typical URL would be “http://www.gradestack.com”.

A Home page, index page, or main page is a page on a website. A home page usually refers to:

A Hyperlink is a reference to data that the reader can directly follow either by clicking or by hovering or that is followed automatically.

Downloading means receiving data to a local system from a remote system, or initiating such a data transfer.

Uploading refers to the sending of data from a local system to a remote system such as a server or another client with the intent that the remote system should store a copy of the data being transferred.

An email attachment is a computer file sent along with an email message. One or more files can be attached to any email message, and be sent along with it to the recipient. The first email was sent by Ray Tomlinson to himself in 1971.

CC (Carbon Copy) in email indicates those who are to receive a copy of a message addressed primarily to another. The list of CCed recipients is visible to all other recipients of the message.

An additional BCC (Blind Carbon Copy) field is available for hidden notification; recipients listed in the BCC field receive a copy of the message but are not shown on any other recipient’s copy (including other BCC recipients).

The Drafts folder retains copies of messages that you have started but is not yet ready to send.

Hotmail, a free e-mail service provided by Microsoft which was established in 1995 was co-founded by an Indian American entrepreneur Sabeer Bhatia along with Jack Smith in July of 1996.

An Internet Protocol address (also known as an IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network. It acts as an identifier for a computer. It is a unique address for every computer.

Top-level domain: Each part of a domain name contains certain information. The first field is the hostname, identifying a single computer or organization. The last field is the top-level domain, describing the type of organization and occasionally country of origin associated with the address. For e.g. – .com – Commercial, .edu – Educational.

Frequently Asked Questions

Internet Explorer is a ___.

Internet Explorer (IE) is the most common web browser. Web Browser is a program that you use to surf the internet.

What must you install on a network if you want to share a broadband Internet connection?

A router is a device that forwards data packets along networks. A router is connected to at least two networks. Routers are located at gateways, the places where two or more networks connect.

Programs that automatically submit your search request to several search engines simultaneously are called ___.

Metasearch engine is a search tool that uses another search engine’s data to produce their own results from the Internet.

What kind of Protocol is used to provide Internet access from mobile?

WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) is a technical standard for accessing information over a mobile wireless network.

What kind of server converts IP addresses to domain names?

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical distributed naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network.

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