Languages in India

“Art and Culture” is one of the most important topics asked in the General Studies and General Knowledge” Section of many competitive exams like UPSC CSE, State PCS, CDS, NDA, FSSAI, SSC, and Others. we are providing students important topics that are the favourite to most of the examiners while framing questions. “Languages in India” is a part of this series and in this post, we are providing students with comprehensive notes on this topic. Sources of our notes are different government portals like “cultural India“, “Incredible India“, “Ministry of Culture” for the latest updates and many competitive books like NIOS, IGNOU, NCERT, the National Museum site for pictures and Wikipedia for static parts.

Languages in India

Languages in India

Also, Read Folk dances in India


  • Sanskrit is the mother of many Indian languages.
  • The Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas, and Dharmasutras are all written in Sanskrit.
  • It is one of the twenty-two languages listed in the Indian Constitution.
  • The Dharmasutras, the Manusmriti, Arthashastra, and Gita Govinda are famous books in Sanskrit.
  • Panini, Kautilya, Kalhana, and Jayadeva are famous writers of Sanskrit.


Pali is an Indo-Aryan language, which was used for the earliest Buddhist scriptures. Pali literature is mainly concerned with Theravada Buddhism.


  • The Vijayanagara period was the golden age of Telugu literature.
  • Eight Telugu literary luminaries are popularly known as Ashtadiggajas.
  • Ramakrishna was the author of Panduranga Mahatmayam, which was considered one of the greatest poetical works of Telugu literature.


  • The Kannada language developed fully after the AD 10th century. The earliest known literary work in Kannada is Kavirajamarg, written by the Rashtrakuta King Nripatunga Amoghavargha l.
  • Pampa, known as the father of Kannada, wrote his great poetic works Adi Purana and Vikramarjiva Vijaya in the AD 10th century.


  • The language of Malayalam emerged around the AD 11th century. By the 15th century, Malayalam was recognized as an independent language.
  • Bhasa Kautilya, a commentary on Arthashastra and Kokashndisam are two great works.
  • Rama Panikkar and Ramanujan Ezhuthachan are well known authors of Malayalam literature.


  • Tamil is the mother language of the Dravidian language family.
  • The Sangam literature is a collection of long and short poems composed by various poets in praise of numerous heroes and heroines.
  • There are about 30000 lines of poetry, which are arranged in eight anthologies called Ettuttokai.

Persian and Urdu

  • Urdu emerged as an independent language towards the end of the AD 4th century.
  • Urdu as a language was born out of the interaction between Hindi and Persian.
  • Urdu became more popular in the early 18th century.
  • The earliest Urdu poet is supposed to be Khusrau.
  • Urdu has given us a new form of a poem, that is called a nazm.


  • Hindi is a direct descendant of the Sanskrit language, through Prakrit and Apabhramsha.
  • It is spoken largely in North India.
  • The evolution of Hindi literature can be better understood through four stages of Adi Kal, Bhakti Kal, Riti-kavya Kal, and Adhunik Kal.
Sharing is Caring!

Leave a Comment