List of Human Health and Disease Notes PDF

List of Human Health and Diseases caused by Microbes – Virus diseases, bacterial diseases, parasitic diseases | Human diseases caused by microorganisms like viruses, bacteria, parasites, worms, and others | Human diseases important list | Human Health and Disease | Common diseases in Humans

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List of Human Health and Diseases

Human Health and Diseases by Microorganisms

nowadays, one of the most serious concerns for a nation is the increased number of cases of human diseases. major human diseases are caused by Microorganisms or microbes including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, some algae, viruses, viroids and also prions which are proteinaceous infectious agents.
In this post, we will cover an extensive list of human diseases caused by major types of microorganisms.

List of Human Health and Diseases caused by Virus

Name of diseaseCaused byParts of the body affectedMethod of spreadType of Vaccination
InfluenzaA myxovirus (RNA virus)Respiratory passages: the epithelial lining of trachea and bronchi.Droplet InfectionKilled virus
Common coldLarge variety of viruses, commonly rhino-virus (RNA Virus)Respiratory passagesDroplet InfectionIntramuscular injection.
SmallpoxVariola virus (DNA virus)Respiratory passages, then skinDroplet Infection (Wounds in the skin)Living attenuated virus applied by scratching the skin, no longer carried
ChickenpoxVaricella- zosterBlistering Skin rashAir-borne dropletsLiving attenuated virus
MumpsA paramyxovirus (RNA virus)Respiratory passages, infection via blood, salivary glands, and testes in adult malesDroplet infectionLiving attenuated virus
MeaslesA paramyxovirus (RNA virus)Respiratory passages, spreading to skin and intestines.Droplet infectionLiving attenuated virus
German measles (Rubella)Rubella virusRespiratory passages, lymph nodes in neck, eyes and skin.Droplet infectionLiving attenuated virus, more essential for girls because the disease causes complications in pregnancy.
Poliomyelitis (polio)Poliovirus (RNA Virus)Pharynx and intestines, then blood; occasionally motor neurons in the spinal cord, paralysis may occur.Droplet infection or via human facesLiving attenuated virus given orally
Yellow feverAn arbovirus i.e arthropod-borne virus (RNA Virus)The lining of blood vessels and liverVector- arthropods e.g ticks, mosquitoesLiving attenuated virus
AIDSRetrovirus (RNA virus)Skin CancerSexual intercourse homo- and heterosexualsNot available
Ebola haemorrhagic feverEbola Virus disease (EVD)Fatal Illness in Humans, FeverIt is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission.No licensed Ebola vaccine is available
Zika diseaseZika Virus (mosquito-borne disease)Causes mild illness in the people like dengue, yellow feverBasically, Infection in pregnant women is linked to abnormally small heads in their babies.No vaccine available
List of Viral Human Diseases

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List of Human Health and Diseases Caused by bacteria

Name of diseaseCaused byParts of body
affected
Method of spreadType of vaccination
or antibodies
DiphtheriaCorynebacterium diphtheriaThe upper respiratory tract, mainly the throat also toxin affects the heart.Droplet infectionToxoid
Tuberculosis (TB)Mycobacterium tuberculosisMainly lungsDroplet infection, Drinking milk from infected cattle.BCG living attenuated bacteria. Antibiotics e.g. streptomycin.
Whooping cough (Pertussis)Bordetella pertussisUpper respiratory tract, inducing violent coughingDroplet infectionKilled bacteria
GonorrhoeaNeisseria gonorrhoeaeReproductive organs: mainly mucous membranes of the urinogenital tract. Newborn infants may acquire serious eye infections if they pass through an infected birth canal.Contagion by sexual contactAntibiotics, e.g. penicillin, streptomycin
SyphilisTreponema pallidumReproductive organs, then eyes, bones, joints, central nervous system, heart and skin.Contagion by sexual contactAntibiotics. e.g. penicillin
TetanusClostridium tetaniBlood.

The toxin produced which affects motor nerves of the spinal cord and hence muscles, causing lockjaw and spreading to the muscles.
Wound infectionToxoid
CholeraVibrio choleraAlimentary canal: mainly small intestine.Faecal contamination

(a) food – or water-borne material contaminated with faeces from an infected person.
(b) handling of contaminated Objects.
(c) vector, e,g. flies moving from human faeces to food.
Killed bacteria: short-lived protection and not always effective Antibiotics e.g. tetracyclines, chloramphenicol.
Typhoid feverSalmonella typhiAlimentary canal, then spreading to lymph and blood, lungs, bone marrow, and spleen.Same as choleraKilled bacteria (TAB vaccine)
Bacterial dysenteryShigella dysenteriaeAlimentary canal, mainly the ileum and colonSame as choleraNo vaccine.
Bacterial food poisoning (gastroenteritis or salmonellosis)Salmonella spp.Alimentary canalMainly foodborne meat from infected animals from poultry and pigs. Also via faecal contamination as choleraAntibiotic. e.g. tetracyclines.
Human diseases by bacteria
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List of Human Health and Diseases by Worms (helminth)

DiseaseThe pathogen responsible and its habitatMode of transmissionMain symptoms
Ancylostomiasis or ‘Hook-worm disease’Ancylostoma duobenale, small intestine (jejunum) of manTransmission from person to person, filariform larvae passed out in faeces, man picks up infection walking barefoot on faecally-contaminated soil.Dermatitis; reddish, severe anaemia; duodenal ulcer, constipation. Patient pale, face puffy with swelling of lower eyelids.
AscariasisAscaris Lumbricoides; small intestine (jejunum) of manTransmission from person to person, ripe eggs passed out in faeces, infection affected by swallowing ripe Ascaris eggs with raw vegetables.Larvae in lung cause pneumonia. May give rise to typhoid-like fever, causing protein and Vitamin A deficiencies resulting in protein-calorie malnutrition and night blindness respectively. Can cause appendicitis, and jaundice.
Enterobiasis or ‘Pinworm disease’Enterobius vermicularis, caecum and vermiform appendixTransmission from one person to another by ingestion of eggs in contaminated food or drink.Eczematous condition around the anus, bed wetting at night, inflammation of the vermiform appendix.
FilariasisWuchereria bancrofti, lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes.Part of the life cycle in mosquitoes in which larvae develop and become infectious to man, with mosquito bite larvae deposited on skin which enter through puncture wound and reach lymphatic channelsElephantiasis i.e. enormous enlargement of certain parts such as that of leg, scrotum, penis, labia, clitoris, breast, and forearm.
Human diseases by worms

List of Human Health and Diseases caused by Fungus

DiseasePathogen responsibleMode of transmissionMain symptoms
Ringworm (tinea)Microsporum, TrichophytonDirect contact from unbathed cats and dogs or objects handled by infected individualsContain one or more blistered areas on the skin and scalp. Cause partial and temporary baldness in children.
Athlete’s footTrichophytonBad foot hygiene where skin remains warm and moist for long periods.Painful itching or burning sensation in the infected areas. Crack appears in the skin, mass of loose dead skin clings between toes.
Madura footMaurella MycetomiFungi gain entry through some minor injury to the skin.Produce a chronic, granulating infection of the lower extremities, affected part becomes enlarged and develops many deep sores, extensive bone destruction leading to crippling deformities.
Dhobie itchSeveral Different FungiDirect contact through Objects handled by infected person.A type of ringworm infection usually located in the groin and inner surfaces of thighs, red rash which itches intensely.
Human diseases by fungi
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Frequently Asked Questions on Human Health and Diseases

Which disease usually spreads through milk?

There are two forms of tuberculosis that cause significant diseases in mammals. Human tuberculosis, a sometimes acute, but much more commonly, chronic lung infection is caused by the bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Bovine tuberculosis is a very similar disease that infects cattle, as well as deer, goats, elk and many other animals. This infection is caused by a related bacterium, Mycobacterium Bovis, Human infection with the bovine form of the bacteria is transmitted through milk.

Are insects responsible for transmitting diseases called __?

Vectors
a vector-borne disease is one in which the pathogenic microorganism is transmitted from an infected individual to another individual by an arthropod or other agent, sometimes with other animals serving as intermediary hosts. The transmission depends upon the attributes and requirements of at least three different living organisms: the pathologic agent, either a virus, protozoa, bacteria, or helminth (worm).
The Vector which commonly arthropods such as ticks or mosquitoes; and the human host. In addition, intermediary hosts such as domesticated and/or wild animals often serve as a reservoir for the pathogen until susceptible human populations are exposed. Nearly half of the world’s population is infected by Vector-borne diseases.

Diseases-related study is called

Diseases-related study is called ‘Toxicology’.

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