In this post, we will see all the important points related to Metals and Nonmetals which are very important for competitive exams.
Table of Contents
Clear Your Concepts
Metals and Nonmetals
- There are no more than 92 naturally occurring elements.
- Metalloids possess both metals and non-metals.
- The property of metals by which they can be beaten into thin sheets is called malleability.
- The property of metal by which it can be drawn into wires is called ductility.
- Gold is the most ductile metal.
- Since metals produce ringing sounds, they are said to be sonorous.
- Metals have high melting points, but gallium and caesium have very low melting points.
- Anodising is a process of forming a thick oxide layer of Aluminium.
Features of Metals and Non-Metals
|Malleable and Ductile||Yes||No, they are brittle|
|Hardness||Generally hard except Na (Sodium) & K (Potassium)||Generally Soft except Diamond|
|Good Conductors of Heat||Yes except Lead||No|
|Good Conductors of electricity||Yes (exception: carbonized steel, pure lead and stainless steel)||No (except: Graphite)|
|Lustrous||Yes (except – lead)||No (except – Iodine)|
|State at room temperature||Generally solid||Solid or Liquid or Gas|
|Melting Point||High except Na, K||Low|
|Density||High except Na, K||Low|
Reactivity Series of Metals
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Important Metals and their ores
|Sodium (Na)||Chile saltpeter Trona Borax Common Salt|
|Calcium (Ca)||Dolomite Calcite Gypsum Fluorspar Asbestos|
|Aluminium (Al)||Bauxite Corundum Felspar Cryolite Alunite Kaolin|
|Potassium (K)||Nitre (salt peter) Carnalite|
|Magnesium (Mg)||Magnesite Dolomite Epsom Salt Kieserite Carnalite|
|Strontium (Sr)||Strontianite Silestine|
|Copper (Cu)||Cuprite Copper glance Copper Pyrites|
|Silver (Ag)||Ruby Silver Horn Silver|
|Gold (Au)||Calaverite Silvenites|
|Zinc (Zn)||Zinc blende Zincite Calamine|
|Iron (Fe)||Haemetite Lemonite Magnetite Siderite Iron Pyrite Copper Pyrites|
|Magnese (Mn)||Pyrolusite Magnite|
|Uranium||Carnotite Pitch blended|
Metals – Important Alloys & their uses
|Brass||Cu (70%) + Zn (30%)||In making of utensil|
|Bronze||Cu (90%) + Sn (10%)||In making of coins, bell and utensils|
|German Silver||Cu + Zn + Ni (60% + 20% + 20%)||In making of utensils|
|Rolled gold||Cu (90%) + Al (10%)||In making of cheap ornaments|
|Gun metal||Cu + Sn +Zn+ Pb (88% + 10% + 1% + 1%)||in making of gun, barrels, gears & bearings|
|Delta metal||Cu + Zn + Fe (60% + 38% + 2%)||In making of blades of aeroplane|
|Munz metal||Cu (60%) + Zn (40%)||In making of coins|
|Dutch metal||Cu (80%) + Zn (20%)||In making Of artificial ornaments|
|Monel metal||Cu (70%) + Ni (30%)||For base containing container|
|Rose metal||Bi + Pb +Sn (50% + 28% + 22%)||For making of automatic fuse|
|Solder||Pb (50%) + Sn (50%)||For Soldering|
|Magnalium||Al (95%) + Mg (5%)||For frame of Aeroplane|
|Duralumin||Al + Cu + Mg + Mn (94% + 3% + 2% + 1%)||For making of utensils|
|Type metal||Sn + Pb Sb (5% + 80% + 15%)||In printing industry|
|bell metal||Cu (80%) + Sn (20%)||For casting bells, statues|
|Stainless steel||Fe + Cr + Ni + C 75% + 15% + 10% + 0.05%||For making of utensils and surgical cutlery|
|Nickel||Fe (95%) + Ni (5%)||For making of electrical wire, automobile parts|
Metals and Nonmetals – Important Facts Part 1
- Zinc phosphide is used for killing rats.
- Wood furniture are coated with zinc chloride to prevent termites.
- Excess of copper in human beings causes disease called Wilson.
- Galvanised iron is coated with zinc.
- Rusting of iron is a chemical change which increases the weight of iron.
- Calcium hydride is called hydrolith.
- Calcium hydride is used to prepare fire proof and waterproof clothes.
- In flash-bulb, magnesium wire is kept in atmosphere of nitrogen gas.
- Titanium is called strategic metal because it is lighter than iron.
- Nichrome wire is used in electrical heater.
- Potassium carbonate is known as pearl ash.
- Zeolite is used to remove hardness of water.
- In cytochrome iron (Fe) is present.
- Selenium metal is used in photo electric cell.
- Gallium metal is liquid at room temperature.
- Palladium metal is used in Aeroplane.
- Radium is extracted from pitchblende.
- Actinides are radio-active elements.
- Cadmium rod is used in nuclear reactor to slow down the speed of neutron.
- Sodium peroxide is used in submarine and also to purify closed air in hospital.
- Co is used in cancer treatment.
- Onion and Garlic have odour due to potassium.
- Oxides of metals are alkaline.
- Silver and copper are the best conductor of electricity.
- Gold and silver are the most malleable metal.
- Mercury and iron produces more resistance in comparison to the other during the flow of electricity.
- Lithium is the lightest and the most reductant element.
- In fireworks, crimson red colour is due to presence of strontium (Sr).
- Green colour is due to the presence of Barium in fireworks.
- Barium sulphate is used in X-ray of abdomen as barium meal.
- Osmium is the heaviest metal and the Platinum is the hardest.
- Zinc oxide is known as flower of zinc. It is also known as Chinese white and used as white paint.
- Silver chloride is used in photochromatic glass.
- Silver iodide is used in artificial rain.
- Silver nitrate is used as marker during election. It is kept in coloured bottle to avoid decomposition.
- Silver spoon is not used in egg food because it forms black silver suphide.
- To harden the gold, copper is mixed. Pure gold is 24 carrat.
- Iron pyrites is known as fool’s gold.
- Mercury is kept in iron pot because it doesn’t form amalgam with iron.
- In tube light, there is the vapour of mercury and argon.
- Tetra-ethyl lead is used as anti-knocking compound.
- Lead pipe is not used for drinking water because it forms poisonous lead hydroxide.
- Fuse wire is made up of lead and tin.
- Wrought iron is the purest form of Iron.
- The melting point of Tungsten (W) is 3500 degree C. In India, Tungsten is produced in Degana mine situated in Rajasthan.
- Zirconium, Cadmium and Boron have the capability to absorb neutrons. So, they are used in nuclear reactor.
- Stannous Sulphide is also called Mosaic gold. It is used as paint. Tin shows the allotropy.
- Barium Sulphate is used as barium meal in X ray of stomach.
- The green light produced while burning crackers is due to presence of Barium.
- The Crimson red light produced while burning crackers is due to Strontium.
- Silver, Gold, Copper, Platinum and Bismuth are found in independent state because they are very less reactive.
- Gold, Platinum, Silver and Mercury are noble metals.
- Gold and silver are the most malleable among metals.
- Mercury and Iron provide much resistance in the flow of electric current.
- Greenocite is the ore of Cadmium.
- Flash bulb contain magnesium wire in medium of nitrogen.
- Aluminium hydroxide is used to make water proof and Stainless clothes.
- Anaemia is caused due to deficiency of Iron in the body while excess of Iron in the body may cause siderosis. Bantu tribes of Africa suffer from siderosis because they drink beer in iron utensils.
- Auric Chloride is used to make antivenom needles.
- Mercury is also known as quick silver. Mercury is kept in iron vessels because it does not make amalgams with Iron.
- Lead is a stable element. So, it is used to write on paper.
- Combustion of petrol in automobiles pollute air by producing lead.
- Lead arsenic is an alloy used to make bullets. Carbon lead is used to make artificial parts of body.
- Lead Oxide is also called Litharge. It is an amphoteric oxide. It is used in rubber industries in manufacturing of storage batteries and flint glass.
- Uranium is a heavy radioactive metal. It belongs to actinide group. It is used in manufacture atom bomb.
- The green colour seen in firework displays is due to the barium chloride salt.
- Sodium can be easily cut with a knife.
Metals and Nonmetals – Important Facts Part 2
- Non-metals are electronegative elements.
- Hydrogen is the lightest gas having 3 isotopes – Protium, Deuterium and Tritium.
- Deuterium oxide is known as heavy water and used in nuclear reactor as moderator.
- Liquid Hydrogen is used as rocket fuel.
- Hard water form less froth with soap while soft water form more froth with soap.
- Hardness of water is due to the presence of soluble impurities of bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates of Ca & Mg.
- There are two types of hardness – temporary hardness and Permanent hardness. Temporary hardness is due to the presence of bicarbonate of calcium and magnesium. Temporary hardness can be easily removed by boiling of water. Permanent hardness is due to the presence of chlorides and sulphates of calcium and magnesium and can be removed by Soda ash process.
- Hydrogen peroxide is a pale blue colour compound and used as bleaching fine and delicate materials. It is used as a hair bleach. It is also used as antiseptic for washing wounds, ear, teeth etc. under the name of Perhydrol. It is also used as rocket fuel.
- Heavy water is used in nuclear reactor to slow down the speed of neutrons and is called as moderator.
- Oxygen is a colourless, odourless and tasteless gas. In atmosphere, oxygen is nearly 21%.
- Liquid oxygen is used as oxidiser in the space rockets.
- Oxygen-ethylene and oxy-acetylene flame is used for welding and cutting of materials.
- Ozone is an allotrope of Oxygen and reduces the effect of ultraviolet rays in the atmosphere.
- Ozone is also used for sterilizing water as it is a germicide as well as disinfectant. It is also used as bleaching agent for delicate fibres, oils, starch and ivory etc. it is also used in industry in the manufacture of silk and synthetic camphor.
- Carbon monoxide is poisonous due to its tendency to combine with hemoglobin to form carboxy hemoglobin which lead to suffocation and ultimately to death.
- Water gas (CO + H2) and Producer gas (CO+N2) are called as fuel gases.
- When liquid carbon dioxide is allowed to evaporate suddenly, it solidifies to form snow like mass called dry ice. It is used as a refrigerant under the name drikold.
- A mixture of carbon dioxide (5%) and oxygen (95%) known as carbogen is given for artificial respiration to the victims of carbon monoxide poisoning.
- Nitrogen is present 78% by volume in atmosphere. Liquid Nitrogen is used for refrigeration.
- Chlorofluoro carbon (CFC) is known as Freon used as refrigerant and aerosol.
- Non-stick utensil is made up of Teflon.
- Chlorine is used to prepare PVC, insecticides herbicides etc.
- Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon and Redon are inert gases. Except Redon, all are present in atmosphere.
- Argon is used in Arc. Welding and electric bulb. Neon is used in discharge tube to glow light.
- Diamond has maximum refractive index and due to total internal reflection.
- Chloroform in sunlight forms poisonous gas “Phosgene”.
- To decrease the basicity of soil, gypsum is used.
- In the preparation of Talcum Powder, theophestal mineral is used.
- Potassium chloride is most suitable for the removal of permanent hardness of water.
- Saccharine is prepared form toluene.
- Nitrous oxide is known as laughing gas.
- Bones contain about 58% calcium phosphate.
- Methyl isocyanate gas was released during Bhopal gas tragedy.
- Red Phosphorus is used in match industry.
- Urea contains 46% nitrogen.
- Artificial perfumes are prepared form Ethyl acetate.
- Urea was the first organic compound synthesised in laboratory.
- Vinegar contains 10% acetic acid.
- Acetylene is used for light production.
- Ferric chloride is used to stop bleeding.
- Barium is responsible for green colour in fireworks.
- Cesium is used in solar cells.
- Yellow phosphorus is kept in water.
- Sea weeds contains iodine.
- The Heaviest element is Osmium.
- Lithium is the lightest element, least dense and most reductant element.
- Fluorine is the most oxidizing agent.
- Radon is the heaviest gas.
- Sulphuric acid is known as oil of vitriol.
- Xenon is also called as stranger gas.
- Platinum is also called as “White Gold”.
- Manganese dioxide, which is black is used to remove the green colour from the glass.
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