NCERT SCIENCE Class 6 – Full Book Summary and Notes | NCERT Science CLASS 6 Notes | NCERT 6th class science notes | ncert science book class 6 all chapter notes | NCERT Science 6th Book notes in English
NCERT SCIENCE CLASS 6 BOOK SUMMARY and NOTES
Chapter 1: Food: where does it come from
- Cooked food always has some kind of ingredients. eg. Idli has Rice, Urad Dal, salt & Water as its ingredients.
- sources of food materials are plants and animals.
- Herbivores: eat plants only
- Carnivores: eat animals only
- Omnivores: eat both plants and animals
Chapter 2: Components of Food
- Food ingredients have carbohydrates, Protein, Fat, Vitamins and Minerals as Nutrients.
- Dietary Fibre present in some food helps to get rid of undigested food.
- water helps in absorption and excretion.
- Vitamins and Minerals are required in less amount in the body and they are needed for proper growth and a healthy body.
- taking excessive amounts of fat in the diet is called Obesity.
Chapter 3: Fibre to Fabric
- Ginning and Spinning are the two processes of making Yarn from the fibre.
- Weaving and Knitting are the two processes of making Fabric from Yarn.
- Cotton, Jute, Flax, Silk and Wool are the Natural sources of Fibre.
- Polyester, Nylon and Acrylic are the artificial sources of Fibre.
Chapter 4: Shorting Materials into Group
- Materials can be grouped as per their similar properties.
Chapter 5: Separation of Substances
- Different Methods of separation are 1. Hand-Picking 2. Threshing 3. Winnowing 4. Sieving 5. Sedimentation 6. Decantation 7. Filtration 8. Evaporation and Condensation.
Chapter 6: Changes around Us
- Contractions and Expansion are the two properties of a metal.
- on heating, metal expands and on cooling, it contracts.
- On heating, the metal rim expands and fits onto the wheel. Coldwater is then poured over the rim which contracts and fits tightly onto the wheel.
Chapter 7: Getting to Know Plants
- Plants are classified into Herbs, Shrubs, Trees, Creepers and Climbers.
- The part of a leaf by which it is attached to the Stem is called Petiole.
- The broad green part of the leaf is called Lamina.
- The lines on the leaf are called Veins.
- The thick vein in the middle of the leaf is called Midrib.
- The design made by veins in a leaf is called the leaf venation.
- There are two types of leaf venation – Reticulate Venation and Parallel Venation.
- In Reticulate Venation, Veins are arranged as a net-like design on both sides of the midrib.
- In Parallel Venation, veins are arranged parallel to one another.
- Photosynthesis: Leaves prepared their food in the presence of sunlight and a green coloured chlorophyll in them by the use of water and carbon-di-oxide. This is called Photosynthesis.
- The Tap root is the main root of a plant.
- the smaller roots present all around of Tap root is called Lateral Roots.
- when roots are all similar and no tap root is present called fibrous root.
- Petals and Sepals are the ordinary parts of a flower.
- Stamen is the male reproductive organ and Pistil is the female reproductive organ of a flowering plant.
- A Stamen has two parts: Anther and Filament.
- A Pistil has three parts: Stigma, Style and Ovary.
Chapter 8: Body Movements
- Movements in animals are because of Joints present between bones.
- Types of Joints are –
|Ball and Socket Joints||present in shoulder and Hip joints||movement in all direction|
|Pivotal Joints||Join head to neck||movement in all direction|
|Hinge Joints||present in elbow and knee||movement in one direction|
|Fixed Joints||Present in skull and Pelvis||No movement|
Chapter 9: Living Organisms and their Surroundings
- The surroundings where organisms live is called Habitat.
- Terrestrial habitats: Forest, Grassland, Desert, Coastal areas, Mountain
- Aquatic Habitats: Pond, river, ocean, lakes
- Living things such as plants and animals are the biotic component of Habitat.
- Non-living things such as rock, soil, air and water are called the abiotic component of Habitat.
- Adaptation: the presence of specific features or certain habitats which enable a plant or an animal to live in its surroundings is called adaptation.
- Acclimatisation: There are some changes that can happen in an organism over a short period of time to help them adjust to some changes in its surroundings. such small changes that take place in the body of a single organism over short periods to overcome small problems due to changes in the surroundings are called acclimatisation.
Chapter 10: Motion and Measurement of Distances
- Motion in one direction is called Rectilinear Motion.
- Motion in a circle is called Circular Motion.
- Motion that repeats after an interval of time is called periodic motion.
- The measurement of a known quantity with which we can measure an unknown quantity is called Unit.
Chapter 11: Light, Shadow & Reflection
- Luminous Objects are those that give off light.
- Those materials from which light passes completely, called Transparent Materials. Examples are glass, clear water etc.
- Those materials from which light partially passes, called Translucent Materials. Examples are Oil-paper, coloured polythene bags etc.
- Those materials from which light can never pass are called Opaque. examples are wall, cardboard etc.
- Shadow: the dark area where light from the light source is blocked is called a Shadow.
Chapter 12: Electricity and Circuits
- The direction of Electricity is from the positive terminal to the negative terminal of a cell.
- Conductors are substances from which electricity can pass.
- Insulators are substances from which electricity can’t pass.
Chapter 13: Fun with Magnet
- Magnetite is a naturally occurring magnet.
- A magnet was first discovered at a place Magnesia.
- Magnetic materials are Iron, Nickels and Cobalt.
- Hammering, Heating and dropping from a height are the reasons for losing the strength of a magnet.
Chapter 14: Water
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- Water Recycle is the only process of existence of water on the earth.
- Ground Water is the main source of drinking water available on the earth.
Chapter 15: Air around us
- Air is composed of water vapour, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon-di-oxide, dust and smoke.
- Nitrogen and Oxygen make up 99% of the Air.
Chapter 16: Garbage in, Garbage out
- Garbage is dumped into a low lying open area called a landfill.
- After the landfill is completely full of garbage, it is converted into a park or a playground and for the next 20 years, there will be no construction on that area.
- VermiComposting: The method of preparing compost with the help of red worms is called vermicomposting.
- Red Worms have a structure called Gizzard which helps them in grinding their food.
- Red Worm eats food equal to its own weight, in a day.
- Papier Mache: It is a paste of clay, paper and rice husk.
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