Best Notes on Operating System

Best Notes on Operating System – definition of the operating system – types of the operating system – OS types – booting – UNIX, MS-DOS, WINDOWS, – single-user operating system – multiuser operating system – multi-tasking operating system – Real Time Operating System – Batch processing operating system – Mobile Operating system – Android – Symbian – IOS – blackberry – Time Sharing Operating System

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Definition of Operating System

An Operating system is a program, which acts as an interface between a user and the hardware.

Characteristics of Operating System

  • Memory Management — keeps track of primary memory i.e. what part of it is in use by whom, what part is not in use etc. and allocates the memory when a process or program requests it.
  • Processor Management — allocates the processor(CPU) to a process and de-allocates the processor when it is no longer required.
  • Device Management — keeps track of all devices. This is also called the I/O controller which decides which process gets the device, when, and for how much time.
  • File Management — allocates and de-allocates the resources and decides who gets the resources.
  • Security — prevents unauthorized access to programs and data by means of passwords and similar other techniques.
  • Job accounting — keeps track of time and resources used by various jobs and/or users.
  • Control over system performance — records delays between request for a service and from the system.
  • Interaction with the operators — The interaction may take place via the console of the computer in the form of instructions. Operating System acknowledges the same, does the corresponding action and informs the operation by a display screen.
  • Error-detecting aids — Production of dumps, traces, error messages and other debugging and error-detecting methods.
  • Coordination between other software and users — Coordination and assignment of compilers, interpreters, assemblers and other software to the various users of the computer systems.
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Type of Operating System

  1. Batch Operating System
  2. Time-Sharing Operating System
  3. Distributed Operating System
  4. Network Operating System
  5. Real-Time Operating System

MS Windows Operating System

MS Windows is a GUI-based operating system. In Windows Operating system multiple applications can be simultaneously run in different windows.

  • In MS Windows, the screen upon which icons, windows, too are displayed is known as the desktop.
  • An icon is a graphic symbol that represents a window element like, file, folder, or shortcut.
  • Loading up of operating system files into the computer’s memory in called booting up.
  • The taskbar is a bar, which is usually located at the bottom of the screen.
  • My computer is helpful for viewing the contents of a single folder or drive.
  • Windows Explorer is another way of seeing what is on your computer. Windows Explorer shows the computer’s contents as a hierarchy.
  • File: A program or document stored on a disk.
  • Toolbar: A set of button you click to perform common tasks.
  • A folder is a location in which you can store files and other folders.
  • To create a new folder, File—New—Folder commands are clicked in My Computer windows.
  • To find files or folders, Start—Find—Files or Folder commands are clicked.
  • To create a shortcut to a file, firstly select the file or folder, whose shortcut is to be created. Then drag the file icon through right mouse button to desired location where shortcut to o be placed, and then select create shortcut(s).
  • To shut down the computer, Start—Shut Down commands are clicked.

DOS and Windows Operating System

DOS stands for disk operating system. The most prevalent from of DOS was manufactured by Microsoft. The last version of DOS to be marketed separately was 6.22 and was used in conjunction with windows 3.11 windows 95 includes DOS. The main difference between windows and DOS is the ability to “multitask” or use two or more programs or data files simultaneously.

In these programmes we have directories or folders that work like a filling cabinet. They help keep our hard disk organized by keeping system files together or program files together and separate from data files. Some types of files include executable or from data files. Some types of files include executable or program files (file names end in .exe) dynamic link libraries (.dll) which are called upon by programs to do routines, and initialization files (.ini) which are used by certain programs to store startup settings.

The earliest avtar of Microsoft Windows was Interface Manager, which was being developed in September 1981. The first ever version of Windows operating system was announced on November 10, 1983. It was an extension of MS DOS, and sported a graphic user interface. Windows 1.0 was finally released into market in November, 1985.

Linux Operating System

Linux is an open source operating system developed by Linus Torvalds as a version of UNIX that could run on a home computer. Linux is considered to be a faster, safer operating system. He patented Linux in 1991, and then made the system and its code available to others, free of charge, over the Internet.

He licensed the system in such a way that anyone can copy and use it, but any improved versions a user creates must be made available to others under the same term, so this was under the GNU GPL. This was more than enough to make the computer programmers from all over the world to flock and make additions and advance.

Type of Linux Operating Systems

  • FreeBSD — operating system derived from Unix
  • Haiku — free and open source operating system.
  • Linux/GNU — family of Unix-like operating systems
  • OpenSolaris — Sun Microsystems’s discontinued operating system derived from Unix
  • Symbian — real-time mobile operating system
  • Ubuntu is a popular open-source computer operating system, and a form of Linux.

Programming Languages use in Linux Operating System

  • Python — general-purpose programming language
  • PHP — scripting language suited for the websites

Server software Use In Linux Operating System

  • WordPress — blog software
  • MediaWiki — wiki server software, the software that runs Wikipedia
  • Joomla – a website software
  • MongoDB — document-oriented, non-relational database
  • Moodle — course management system or virtual learning environment
  • Drupal — content management system
  • RenovatioCMS — content management system
  • Apache — HTTP web serve

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