Post Mauryan Period (Pre-Gupta Period): Sunga dynasty, Kanva Dynasty, Satavahana Dynasty, Indo-Greek rulers, Saka rulers, Sangam Period – all important points for different competitive exams
Post Mauryan Period
- Capital – Vidisha
- Founder – Pushyamitra Sunga
- Revived orthodox Hinduism.
- Patanjali (author of Mahabhasya) was the priest of Pushyamitra Sunga.
- Pushyamitra was succeeded by his son Agnimitra who is the Hero of Kalidas’ drama “Malvikagnimitra“.
- Devabhuti is the last ruler of Sunga dynasty.
- Gateway Railing of Sanchi Stupa and Bharhut Stupa was founded during Sunga Dynasty.
- Capital – Patliputra
- Founder – Vasudeva
- Last Ruler – Susharman
- Capital – Pratishtana/ Paithan (Later – Amaravati)
- Founder – Simuka
- Hala, the 17th ruler was the author of “Gathasaptasati” or sattasai in Prakrit.
- Gunadhya the author of Vrihat katha (in Prakrit) was the contemporary of Hala.
- The greatest ruler was “Gautamiputra Satakarni“.
- Last Ruler – Pulamavi III
- Saavahanas issued their coins in lead (mainly), copper, bronze and potin.
- Ishvakus were the rulers who ruined the Satavahnas.
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- Indo-Greeks or Bacterian Greeks were the first foreign rulers of North-western India in the post maurya period.
- The most famous Indo-Greek ruler was Menander (165BC-145BC) also known as Milinda. He was converted to Buddhism by Nagasena or Nagarjuna.
- The Indo-Greeks were the first rulers in India to issues coins which were in the attribute to Kings.
- They were first to issue gold coins.
- They were introduced the Gandhar Art in the North Western India. One example of the Gandhara style of art is the Bamiyan Buddha statues.
- The Sakas also known as Scythians replaced the Indo-Greek in India.
- The Most famous Saka ruler in India was Rudra Daman.
- The last shaka ruler Rudrasimha III was defeated by Chandragupta II of Gupta dynasty.
- Parthians or (Pahlavas) lived in Iran, they replaced the Saka in the North-Western India.
- The most famous Parthian King was Gondaphernes in whose reign St. Thomas came to India.
- The founder was Kadphises I.
- Came from North Central Asia.
- Capital – Peshawar (Purushapura) and Mathura.
- The most famous Kushan ruler was Kanishka.
- Kanishka also known as “Second Ashoka”
- He adopted Buddhism and 4th Buddhist council was held under the patron of Kanishka.
- He started the Saka Era.
- He also controlled the silk ruler and collected tax.
- He patronised the Ashwaghosa (wrote Buddhacharitra), Nagarjuna, Vasumitra (chairman of 4th Buddhist council), Charak (charaksamhita), Sushruta (Sushruta Samhita).
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The Sangam Period
- The Cheras occupied the portion of both Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
- The Pandya territory included modern districts of Tirunelvelli, Ramand and madurai in Tamil Nadu.
- The Cholas kingdom corresponded to the modern Tanjore and Tiruchchirappalli districts.
|Greatest Ruler||Karikala||Senguttuvan (Red Chera)||NenduJelian|
|Trade||Trade in Cotton||Trade in Pearls|
|others||Kaveripattnam port is built by Karikala||Important ports were Muzris and Tondi.|
|2nd Sangam||Kapatapuran/Alvai||Asastasya||Tolkappiyam (a tamil grammar book)|
|3rd Sangam||North Madurai||Nakkirar||Ettutogai, Pattu-Pattu, Patinenki-lakanakku etc.|
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