Easy Notes on Post Mauryan Period

Post Mauryan Period (Pre-Gupta Period): Sunga dynasty, Kanva Dynasty, Satavahana Dynasty, Indo-Greek rulers, Saka rulers, Sangam Period – all important points for different competitive exams

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Mauryan Dynasty and Post Mauryan Period

Post Mauryan Period

Sunga Dynasty

  • Capital – Vidisha 
  • Founder – Pushyamitra Sunga 
  • Revived orthodox Hinduism. 
  • Patanjali (author of Mahabhasya) was the priest of Pushyamitra Sunga. 
  • Pushyamitra was succeeded by his son Agnimitra who is the Hero of Kalidas’ drama “Malvikagnimitra“. 
  • Devabhuti is the last ruler of Sunga dynasty. 
  • Gateway Railing of Sanchi Stupa and Bharhut Stupa was founded during Sunga Dynasty.
Post Mauryan Period

Kanva Dynasty

  • Capital – Patliputra 
  • Founder – Vasudeva 
  • Last Ruler – Susharman

Satavahana Dynasty

  • Capital – Pratishtana/ Paithan (Later – Amaravati
  • Founder – Simuka 
  • Hala, the 17th ruler was the author of “Gathasaptasati” or sattasai in Prakrit. 
  • Gunadhya the author of Vrihat katha (in Prakrit) was the contemporary of Hala. 
  • The greatest ruler was “Gautamiputra Satakarni“. 
  • Last Ruler – Pulamavi III 
  • Saavahanas issued their coins in lead (mainly), copper, bronze and potin. 
  • Ishvakus were the rulers who ruined the Satavahnas.

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Indo-Greeks

  • Indo-Greeks or Bacterian Greeks were the first foreign rulers of North-western India in the post maurya period. 
  • The most famous Indo-Greek ruler was Menander (165BC-145BC) also known as Milinda. He was converted to Buddhism by Nagasena or Nagarjuna
  • The Indo-Greeks were the first rulers in India to issues coins which were in the attribute to Kings. 
  • They were first to issue gold coins
  • They were introduced the Gandhar Art in the North Western India. One example of the Gandhara style of art is the Bamiyan Buddha statues.

The Saka

  • The Sakas also known as Scythians replaced the Indo-Greek in India. 
  • The Most famous Saka ruler in India was Rudra Daman
  • The last shaka ruler Rudrasimha III was defeated by Chandragupta II of Gupta dynasty.

The Parthians

  • Parthians or (Pahlavas) lived in Iran, they replaced the Saka in the North-Western India. 
  • The most famous Parthian King was Gondaphernes in whose reign St. Thomas came to India.

The Kushans

  • The founder was Kadphises I. 
  • Came from North Central Asia. 
  • Capital – Peshawar (Purushapura) and Mathura. 
  • The most famous Kushan ruler was Kanishka.
    • Kanishka also known as “Second Ashoka” 
    • He adopted Buddhism and 4th Buddhist council was held under the patron of Kanishka. 
    • He started the Saka Era. 
    • He also controlled the silk ruler and collected tax. 
    • He patronised the Ashwaghosa (wrote Buddhacharitra), Nagarjuna, Vasumitra (chairman of 4th Buddhist council), Charak (charaksamhita), Sushruta (Sushruta Samhita).

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The Sangam Period

  • The Cheras occupied the portion of both Kerala and Tamil Nadu. 
  • The Pandya territory included modern districts of Tirunelvelli, Ramand and madurai in Tamil Nadu. 
  • The Cholas kingdom corresponded to the modern Tanjore and Tiruchchirappalli districts.
 Cholas Cheras Pandyas 
Capital Uraiyaur Vanjji Madurai 
Emblem Tiger Bow Fish 
Greatest Ruler Karikala Senguttuvan (Red Chera) NenduJelian 
Trade Trade in Cotton  Trade in Pearls 
others Kaveripattnam port is built by Karikala Important ports were Muzris and Tondi.  

Sangam Literature

Serial Numbers Venue Chairman Texts 
1st Sangam Madurai Agastasya 
2nd Sangam Kapatapuran/Alvai Asastasya Tolkappiyam (a tamil grammar book) 
3rd Sangam North Madurai Nakkirar Ettutogai, Pattu-Pattu, Patinenki-lakanakku etc. 

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