Best Economics Notes on Poverty and Unemployment in India

Poverty and Unemployment in India – Poverty, What is Poverty, Unemployment, Types of Unemployment, BHARAT NIRMAN YOJANA, MAHATMA GANDHI NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE ACT (MNREGA) 2005, EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE ACT 2005, Some Important Development & Employment Programmes – Swarn Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana

Poverty and Unemployment in India
Poverty and Unemployment in India


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Poverty and Unemployment in India


According to The Planning Commission the person not getting 2400 & 2100 cal intake per day residing in rural & urban areas respectively will be considered as poor. Recently the P.C. declared that anyone spending more than Rs 965 per month in urban India and Rs 781 in rural India will be deemed not to be poor. Updating the poverty line cut-off figures, the commission said those spending in excess of Rs 32 a day in urban areas or Rs 26 a day in villages will no longer be eligible to draw benefits of central And state government welfare schemes meant for those living below the poverty line. According to the lastest data 26.1 % of the Indian population is B.P.L.


In common parlance, anybody who is not gainfully employed in any productive activity is called unemployed. However, it can be of two kinds (i) voluntary unemployed and (ii) involuntary unemployed. Here we are concerned with the second category of unemployed persons.

Hence unemployment can be defined as a situation when persons able and willing to work are seeking jobs at the prevailing wage level but they are unable to get the same.

In India, unemployment is structural in nature due to lack of productive capacity and resource.

The main reasons for unemployment in India are slow economic development, population explosion, outdated technique, improper education system and limited effect of government planning.

Types of Unemployment in India

Cyclical unemployment: It is the result of depression in an economy.

Frictional unemployment — This kind of unemployment is temporary. It is the result of a situation when new industries drive out old ones and workers change over to better jobs.

Open unemployment — It refers to those who have no work to do even though they are able and willing to do work.

Seasonal unemployment — This occurs at certain period of the work when work load is comparatively less, and hence people are rendered jobless. For example, in the period between past harvest and next sowing, agricultural laborers are unemployed. It means the unemployment of the farmers and farm labourers during non-crop seasons.

Educated unemployed — This is mainly found in urban areas. Those educated persons who are unable to get work come under this category.

Underemployment — It results when a person contributes to production less than what he or she is capable of, for example, an engineer working as a clerk is underemployed.

The Planning Commission collects data of unemployment on the basis of ‘Lakadawala Formula’ effective from 11th March, 1997 and prior to this the process to collect data was on the basis of surveys of National Sample Survey Organisation (NASO).

Compulsory unemployment means the labour-power which is ready to work at the current rate but does not get the work.

In India, the data relating to unemployment are collected by National Sample Survey Organisation (NASO). This Organisation has the following concepts with regard to unemployment:

General status of unemployment — In this category generally, those unemployed for more than one year’ are included. As such it is a long-term unemployment.

Weekly unemployment — The persons who have not got work for even one hour in a week are included in this category.

Daily unemployment — It is considered the best concept of unemployment.

List of Development And Employment Programmes In India to remove Poverty and Unemployment in India

Sl. No.Programme/Plan/InstitutionYearObjective/ Description
1.Community Development Programme (CDP)1952Overall development of rural areas with people’s participation.
2.Intensive Agriculture Development Programme(IADP)1960-61To provide loan, seeds, fertilizer tools to the farmers.
3.Intensive Agriculture Area Programme (IAAP)1964-65To develop the special harvests
4.Credit Authorisation Scheme (CAS)November 1965A Scheme of Qualitative credit control of Reserve Bank
5.High Yielding Variety Programme (HYVP)1966-67To increase productivity of food grains by adopting latest varieties of inputs for crops
6.Indian Tourism Development Corporation (ITDC)October 1966To arrange for the construction of Hotels and Guest houses a various of inputs for crops
7.Green Revolution1966-67To increase the food grains, specially wheat production
8.Nationalisation of 14 BanksJuly 1969To provide loans for agriculture, rural development and other priority sectors
9.Rural Electrification CorporationJuly 1969Electrification in rural areas
10.Housing and Urban Development CorporationApril 1970Loans for the development of housing and provision of resources for technical assistance
11.Scheme of Discriminatory Interest RateApril 1972To provide loan to the weaker sections of the society at a concessional interest rate of 4%
12.Employment Guarantee Scheme of Maharashtra1972-73To assist the economically weaker sections of the rural society
13.Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP)1972-73For providing drinking water in the villages
14.Deought-Prone Area Programme (DPAP)1973To try an expedient for protection from drought by achieving environmental balance and by developing the groundwater
15.Crash Scheme for Rural Employment (CSRE)1972-73For rural employment
16.Marginal Farmer and Agriculture Labour Agency (MFALA)1973-74For technical and financial assistance to marginal and small farmers and agricultural labour
17.Small Farmer Development Agency (SFDA)1974-75For technical and financial assistance to small farmer
18.Command Area Development Programme (CADP)1974-75To ensure better and rapid utilization of irrigation capacities of medium and large projects
19.Twenty Point Programme (TPP)1975Poverty eradication and raising the standard of living
20.National Institution of Rural Development1977Training, investigation and advisory organization for rural development
21.Desert Development Programme (DDP)1977-78For controlling the desert expansion and maintaining environmental balance
22.Food for Work Programme1977-78Providing food grains o labour for the work of development
23.Antyodaya Yojana1977-78To make the poorest families of the village economically independent (only in Rajasthan State)
24.Training Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM)August 15, 1979Programme of training rural youth for self-employment
25.Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP)October 2, 1980All-round development of the rural poor through a programme of asset endowment for self-employment
26.National Rural Employment Programme (NREP)1980To provide profitable employment opportunities to the rural poor
27.Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA)September 1982To provide suitable opportunities of self-employment to the women belonging to the rural families who are living below the poverty line
28.Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP)August 15, 1983For providing employment to landless and labourers
29.Self-Employment to the Educated Unemployed Youth (SEEUY)1983-84To provide financial and technical assistance for self-employment
30.Farmer Agriculture Service Centre’s (FASC’s)1983-84To popularize the use of improved agricultural instruments and tool kits
31.National Fund for Rural Development (NFRD)February 1984To grant 100% tax rebate to donors and also to provide financial assistance for rural development projects
32.Industrial Reconstruction Bank of IndiaMarch 1985To provide financial assistance to sick and closed industrial units for their reconstruction
33.Comprehensive Crop Insurance SchemeApril 1, 1985For insurance of agricultural crops
34.Council for Advancement of People’s Action and Rural Technology (CAPART)September 1, 1986To provide assistance for rural prosperity
35.Self-Employment Programme for the Urban Poor (SEPUP)September 1986To provide self-employment to urban poor through provision of subsidy and bank credit
36.Service Area Account (SAA)February 1988A new credit policy for rural areas
37.Formation of Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)April 1988To safeguard the interest of investors in capital market and to regulate share market
38.Tourism Finance Corporation of India (TFCI)1989To arrange the finance for the schemes related to tourism
39.Jawahar Rozgar YojanaApril 1989For providing employment to rural unemployed
40.Nehru Rozgar YojanaOctober 1989For providing employment to urban unemployed
41.Agriculture and Rural Debt Relief Scheme (ARDRS)1990To exempt bank loans up to Rs. 10,000 of rural artisans and weavers
42.Scheme of Urban Micro Enterprises (SUME)1990To assist the urban poor people for small enterprise
43.Scheme of urban Wage Employment (SUWE)1990To provide wages employment after arranging the basic facilities for poor people in the urban areas where population is less than one lakh
44.Scheme of Housing and Shelter up-gradation (SHASU)1990To provide employment by the means of shelter up-gradation in the urban areas where population is between 1 to 20 lakhs
45.National Housing and Bank Voluntary Deposit Scheme1991To utilize black money for constructing low cost housing for the poor
46.National Renewal Fund (NRF)February 1992To protect the interest of the employees of Public Sector
47.Supply of Improved Toolkits to Rural ArtisansJuly 1992To supply modern toolkits to the rural craftsmen except the weavers, tailors, embroiders and tobacco labourers who are living below the poverty line
48.Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS)October 2, 1993To provide employment of at least 100 days in a year in villages
49.Members of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme (MPLADS)December 23, 1993To sanction Rs. 1 crore per year to every Member of Parliament for various development works in their respective areas through DM of the district
50.Scheme of Infrastructural Development in Mega Cities (SIDMC)1993-94To provide capital through special institutions for water supply, sewage, drainge, urban transportation, land development and improvement of slum projects undertaken in Mumbai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Chennai and Hyderabad
51.Scheme of Integrated Development of Small and Medium TownsSixth Five Year PlanTo provide resources and create employment in small and medium towns for prohibiting the migration of population from rural areas to big cities
52.District Rural Development Agency (DRDA)1993To provide financial assistance for rural development
53.Mahila Samridhi Yojana2 October, 1993To encourage the rural women to deposit in Post Office Saving Account
54.Child Labour Eradication SchemeAugust 15, 1994To shift child labour from hazardous industries to schools
55.Prime Minister’s Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Programme (PMIUPEP)November 18, 1995To attack urban poverty in an integrated manner in 345 town having population between 50,000 to 1 lakh
56.Group Life Insurance Scheme in Rural Areas1995-96To provide insurance facilities to rural people on low premium
57.National Social Assistance Programme1995To assist people living below the poverty line
58.Ganga Kalyan Yojana1997-98To provide financial assistance to farmers for exploring and developing ground and surface water resources
59.Kasturba Gandhi Education SchemeAugust 15, 1997To establish girls schools in districts having low female literacy rate
60.Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY)December, 1997To provide gainful employment to urban unemployed and under employed poor through self-employment or wage employment
61.Bhagya Shree Bal Kalyan PolicyOct. 19, 1998To uplift the girls conditions
62.Rajrajeshwari Mahila Kalyan YojanaOct. 19, 1998To provide insurance protection to women
63.Annapurna YojanaMarch, 1999To provide 10 kg. food grains to senior citizens (who did not get pension)
64.Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SJGSY)April 1999For eliminating rural poverty and unemployment and promoting self-employment
65.Samagra Awas Yojana1999-2000For providing shelter sanitation and drinking water
66.Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY)April 1999Creation of demand driven community village infrastructure
67.Jan Shree Bima YojanaAug. 10, 2000Providing Insurance Security to people living poverty line
68.Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana2000To fulfill basic requirements in rural areas
69.Antyodaya Anna YojanaDec. 25, 2000To provide food security to poor
70.Ashraya Bima YojanaJune 2001To provide compensation to labourers who have lost their employment
71.Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY)Dec. 25, 2000To link all villages with Pacca Road
72.Khetihar Mazdoor Bima Yojana2001-02Insurance of Landless Agricultural workers
73.Shiksha Sahyog Yojana2001-02Education of Children Below Poverty Line
74.Sampurna Gramin Rozgar YojanaSept. 25, 2001Providing employment and food security
75.Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY)Dec. 2, 2001Constructing Slum houses in urban areas.
76.National Slum Development ProgrammeAug. 1996Development of Urban Slums
77.Social Security Pilot SchemeJan. 23, 2004Scheme for labours of unorganized sector for providing family pension, insurance and medical
78.Vande Mataram SchemeFeb. 9, 2004Major initiative in public-private partnership during pregnancy check-up
79.National Food for Work ProgrammeNov. 14, 2004Programme to intensify the generation of supplementary wage employment.
80.Janani Suraksha YojanaApril 12, 2005Providing care to expectant mothers.
81.Bharat Nirman YojanaDec. 16, 2005Development of Rural Infrastructure including six components : Irrigation, Water Supply, Housing, Road, Telephone and Electricity
82.National Rural Employment Guarantee SchemeFeb.2, 2006To provide at least 100 days wage employment in rural areas.
83SwawlambanSep. 26, 2010New Pension Scheme for unrecognised sector
84.SwabhimanFebruary 10, 2011Financial Inclusion
85.Pradhan Mantri Jhan Ghan Yojana15 August 2014Financial Inclusion
86.Pradhan Mantri Adrash Gram Yojana2009-10Village Development Scheme
87.Digital India Programme2014Transform the Indian Economy into a digitally empowered knowledge economy
88.Swacch Bharat Abhiyaan02 October 2014Goal of clean India in next five years
89.Atal Pension YojanaMay 09, 2015Social Sector Scheme pertaining to Pension Sector
90.Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana2015It is a Government of India program aimed at providing 24×7 uninterrupted power supply to all homes in Rural India
91.Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima YojanaMay 9, 2015Accidental Insurance with a premium of Rs. 12 per year.
92.Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima YojanaMay 9, 2015Life insurance of Rs. 2 lakh with a premium of Rs. 330 per year.
93.HRIDAY – Heritage City Development and Augmentation YojanaJan 2015The scheme seeks to preserve and rejuvenate the rich cultural heritage of the country.
94.Sukanya Samridhi Yojana (Girl Child Prosperity Scheme)Jan 22 2015The scheme primarily ensures equitable share to a girl child in resources and savings of a family in which she is generally discriminated as against a male child.
95.AMRUTJune 25, 2015To enable better living and drive economic growth stressing on the need for people centric urban planning and development.
96.Pradhan Mantri Awas YojanaJune 25, 2015To enable better living and drive economic growth stressing on the need for people centric urban planning and development.
97.Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas YojanaJuly 15, 2015Seeks to provide the institutional capacity to train a minimum 40 crore skilled people by 2022
98.Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala YojanaMay 1, 2016Launched to provide free LPG connections to women from below poverty line families
99.UDAN SchemeJan 2017UDAN – Ude Desh ka Aam Nagrik.
This scheme seeks to provide connectivity to un-served and under-served airports of the country through revival of existing airstrips and airports.
100.Digi Dhan Vyapar YojanaDec, 2016This scheme is for the merchants across the country. Under it, merchants doing business using POS are eligible to win Rs.50000 per week. 3 Mega Prizes for merchants will be of Rs 50 lakhs, 25 lakh, 12 lakh for digital transactions between 8 November 2016 to 13 April 2017. It will be announced on 14 April 2017

Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP) was renamed Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission (RGNDWM) in 1991.

Bharat Nirman Yojana

  • The Union Government launched a new comprehensive scheme, named ‘Bharat Nirman Yojana’ on December 16, 2005.
  • This scheme aims at developing rural infrastructure.
  • The duration of implementing this scheme has been fixed for four years with an expected expenditure of Rs. 174000 crore.
    The major six sectors and their targets for next four years are:
  • Irrigation—To ensure irrigation for additional one crore hectare of land by 2009.
  • Roads—To link all villages of 1000 population with main roads and also to link all ST and hilly villages upto 500 population with roads.
  • Housing—Construction of 60 lakh additional houses for the poor.
  • Water supply—To ensure drinking water to all remaining 74000 villages.
  • Electrification—To supply electricity to all remaining 1,25,000 villages and to provide electricity connections to 2.3 crore houses.
  • Rural Communication—To provide telephone facility to all remaining 66,822 villages.

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA), 2005

  • The National Rural Employment Guarantee Bill was passed by Parliament on September 7, 2005. It secured Presidential assent later in 2005 itself and became an Act.
  • The Act provides for at least 100 days of employment to one able bodied person in every rural household every year.
  • The wages admissible are around Rs. 100 per day.
  • The Act (NREGA) came into force from Feb. 2, 2006. Initially 200 districts have been selected for the enforcement of the scheme.
  • The Government has extended the NREGA to all 604 districts of the country, with a total budget outlay of Rs. 16,000 crore for the extended scheme for 2008-09 (April 1, 2008).
  • The Govt. of India, October 2, 2009 renamed the NREGA as the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA).

Employment Guarantee Act, 2005

  • The Government, on the advice of the National Advisory Council, has passed the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act. The main features of the proposed Act are:
  • Every household in rural India will have a right to at least 100 days of guaranteed employment every year for at least one adult member. The employment will be in the form of casual manual labour at the statutory minimum wage, and the wages shall be paid within 7 days of the week during which work was done.
  • Work should be provided within 15 days of demanding it, and the work should be located within 5-kilometer distance.
  • If work is not provided to anybody within the given time, he/she will be paid a daily unemployment allowance, which will be at least one-third of the minimum wages.
  • Workers employed on public works will be entitled to medical treatment and hospitalization in case of injury at work, along with a daily allowance of not less than half of the statutory minimum wage. In case of death or disability of a worker, an ex-gratia payment shall be made to his legal heirs as per provisions of the Workmen Compensation Act.
  • 5% of wages may be deducted as contribution to welfare schemes like health insurance, accident insurance, survivor benefits, maternity benefits and social security schemes.
  • For non-compliance with rules, strict penalties have been laid down.
  • For transparency and accountability, all accounts and records of the programme will be made available for public scrutiny.
  • The District Collector/Chief Executive Officer will be responsible for the programme at the district level.
  • The Gram Sabha will monitor the work of the Gram Panchayat by way of social audit.

Some Important Development And Employment Programmes

  • During the Seventh Five-Year Plan, a scheme called ‘Jawahar Rozgar Yojana’ was introduced from April 1989 to solve the problem of unemployment in the rural sector. The former ongoing two main rural employment programmes National Rural Employment Programme (NREP) and Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP) were merged with Jawahar Rozgar Yojana.
  • The total expenditure on Jawahar Rozgar Yojana was shared by the Centre and the State Government in the ratio of 80 : 20.
  • Under the Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, 30% employment opportunities was reserved for women.
  • Under the Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, it was made compulsory to spend 60% of the total expenditure on labour used in the works completed under the scheme.
  • A sub-plan of Jawahar Rozgar Yojana— ‘Indira Awas Yojana’ was made an independent scheme in itself on January 1, 1996.
  • The Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) was introduced on October 2, 1993, in selective rural areas. The aim of this scheme is to provide work in the form of unskilled physical labour to all the employment-seeking men and women (of ages between 18 years to 60 years) in rural areas. The expenditure on this scheme is shared by the Centre and the States in the ratio of 80:20. From maximum of 2 members from one family can be benefitted under this scheme. Since January 1, 1996, the Integrated Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (IJRY) has been merged with Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS).
  • The Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was started on an experimental basis in 1978-79. This programme was launched in the whole country on October 2, 1980. The basic aim of IRDP was to provide assistance to rural poor families living below the poverty line.
  • The Integrated Rural Development Programme is financially assisted by the Centre and States in the ratio of 50 : 50.
  • Under the Integrated Rural Development Programme, targeted group includes atleast 50% families belonging to schedule caste and schedule tribe. Apart from this, among the beneficiaries, 50% were females and 3% physically handicapped persons.
  • Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) and Training Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM) were the sub-plans of Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP).
  • The objective of TRYSEM was to provide training to those rural youth (ages 18-35 years) who belong to the families living below the poverty line. This programme was started on August 15, 1979.
  • Development of Women and Children in Rural Area Programme (DWCRA) was started in September 1982. Under this programme, a group of 10-15 women was taken, who belong to the families living below the poverty line and they were given training for starting any economic activity. Every group was given the economic assistance of Rs. 25,000.
  • Swarna Jayanti Gram SwarozgarYojana (SGSY): The Government has introduced Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana on April 1, 1999 and the previous six ongoing schemes have been merged with this scheme, they are—1. IRDP 2. TRYSEM 3. DWCRA 4. MWS 5. SITRA 6. Ganga Kalyan Yojana. The SGSY is a holistic programme covering all the aspects of self-employment. The scheme is funded on 75 : 25 basis by the centre and states.
  • The Drought-prone Area Programme was started in 1973 with the objective of developing the drought-prone area and also re-establishing the environmental balance. This programme is financially assisted by the Centre and the concerned State Governments in the ratio of 50 : 50.
  • The Desert Development Programme was started in 1977-78 to end the ill effects of drought in desert areas and also to stop the process of desert expansion. This programme is implemented on the basis of cent-percent financial assistance rendered by the Central Government.
  • The Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP) began on August 15, 1993 and National Rural Employment Programme (NREP) on October 2, 1980. During Seventh Five-Year Plan, these programmes were merged with Jawahar Rozgar Yojana.
  • Council for Advancement of Peoples Action and Rural Technology (CAPART) is an independent section of the Rural Development Department of the Government of India; which was established on September 1, 1986. For rural development works, ‘CAPART’ provides grants to voluntary organisations. The head office of CAPART is at New Delhi.
  • Following programmes .are being implemented by the Ministry of Urban Development to eradicate Urban Poverty—(i) Nehru Rozgar Yojana. (ii) Urban Basic Services for the Poor. (iii) Programme of Environment Improvement of Urban Slums.
  • The Nehru Rozgar Yojana began on October 1989 which was revised in March 1990. Under this Yojana following scheme were included—(i) Scheme of Urban Micro Enterprises—SUME. (ii) Scheme of Urban Wage Employment—SUWE. (iii) Scheme of Housing and Shelter Upgradation—SHASU.
  • The Prime Minister’s Rozgar Yojana (PMRY) was started for October 2, 1993 for the educated unemployed youth and initially was in operation in urban areas. From April 1, 1994 onwards the scheme is being implemented throughout the country. Its objective was to give employment to 10 lakhs educated unemployed urban youth by establishing 7 lakh micro enterprises during the Eighth Five Year Plan. During 1993-94, this yojana was implemented in urban areas only but since April 1, 1994 it was extended to the whole country.
  • SHGs (Self-Help Groups) are considered eligible for financing under the PMRY, effective from December 8, 2003 (terms modified on July 30, 2004) provided all members individually satisfy the eligibility criteria laid down and total membership does not exceed twenty (20). There is also a ceiling on the loan amount. During 2004-05 banks sanctioned loans amounting to Rs. 1479 crore in 2.36 lakh accounts, while disbursements amounted to Rs. 851 crore in 1.42 lakh accounts (data provisional).

Swarn Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana

  • The Urban Self-employment Programme and Urban Wage-Employment Programmes of the Swaran Jayanti Shahari Yojana, which substituted in December 1997 various programmes operated earlier for poverty alleviation.
  • SJSRY is funded on 75:25 basis between the Centre and the States.
  • During the 3-year period (1997-98 and 1999-2000), a total of Rs. 353 crores were spent of SJSRY generating 21.8 million man-days of employment

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Important Questions on Poverty and Unemployment in India

Questions 1
Unemployment problem leads to poverty because [UKPCS (Pre) 2011]
(A) people living below poverty line increase
(B) there is rapid increase in population
(C) it increases inflation
(D) it leads to rise in interest rate

Questions 2
To eradicate the problem of poverty, Twenty Point Economic Programme was launched for the first time in India on [HCS (Pre) 2014]
(A) 7th July, 1971
(B) 7th July, 1975
(C) 26th January, 1951
(D) 15 August, 1983

Questions 3
Disguised unemployment generally means [HPPSC (Pre) 2014]
(A) large number of people remain unemployed
(B) alternative employment is not available
(C) marginal productivity of labour is zero
(D) productivity of worker is low

Questions 4
Unemployment may result when some workers are temporarily out of work while changing job [HCS (Pre) 2014]
(A) Seasonal
(B) Disguised
(C) Frictional
(D) Technical

Questions 5
Tendulkar Committee has estimated that in India the percentage of the population below poverty line is [UPPCS (Pre) 2012]
(A) 27.2
(B) 37.2
(C) 22
(D) 32.7

FAQs on Poverty and Unemployment in India

Critical minimum effort theory was designed by which economist?

Critical minimum effort theory was designed by H. Leibenstein.

What was the unemployment rate during 2015-16 based on Usual Principal Status in India?

The unemployment rate during 2015-16 based on Usual Principal Status in India was 5.0%.

How many people in India live below the poverty line?

29.5% people in India live below the poverty line.

Which committee is related to the estimation of poverty in India?

Suresh Tendulkar Committee is related to the estimation of poverty in India.

Poverty level in India is established on the basis of ___

Poverty level in India is established on the basis of household consumer expenditure.

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