Type of Silk and Silkworms – Sericulture in India PPT and PDF Notes: What is Sericulture or Silk Farming? | Silk and important types of Silk | Types of Silkworm | types of silk fabric with names and pictures | Mulberry and Non-mulberry silk | Life cycle of a silkworm | Stages of Silk Production
in this post, we will learn the Sericulture (Silk farming) in India, the definition and types of silk in India, Types of important silkworms
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Sericulture | Silk farming
Sericulture or Silk farming is the process of extracting silk from silkworms. At the global level, sericulture is mainly done with Mulberry silkworms. India and China are the two countries that occupy the topmost position in the production of silk. India is the only country known for all types of silk production. At a global level, India acquires the second position in the production of Silk.
History of Silk
Silk was suddenly discovered by Xilingji (Hsiling-Chi), wife of China’s third Emperor, Huangdi (Hoang-Ti) in 2640 BC. While making tea, Xilingji accidentally dropped a silkworm cocoon into a hot cup of water and found that the silk fibre could be twisted together to make a thread that was strong enough to be woven into cloth.
For a very long time, the Chinese kept the silk production process, a secret from the rest of the world. After the discovery of the silk route or silk road, few other eastern nations learnt the secret of silk production.
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What is Silk?
Silk is a type of fabric which is world-renowned for its softness, smoothness, lustrous and durability. For this reason, Silk is known as the ‘Queen of Textiles’. It is produced by Silkworms.
Importance of Silk | Uses of Silk
From time immemorial, man adores natural fabrics. In ancient times, Silk was only reserved for royalty. Silk had a prestigious place in the culture and commerce of India in the Pre-Vedic age. It is a natural gift to mankind and a commercial fibre of animal origin other than wool. Importance and the Uses of Silk are –
- It is Eco-friendly, Biodegradable and Self-sustaining material.
- It is smooth, lustrous and durable.
- Raw Silk is used for clothing such as shirts, suits, ties, blouses, Pajamas, Jackets, etc.
- Hand-spun mulberry silk is used for making comforters and sleeping bags.
- Knitted materials from silk fibres i.e. socks, stocking are very costly and possess a good market.
- The silk gut used in surgery for internal suturing is made from silk glands. The silk glands are dissected out and put in warm water and pulled at two ends to yield a fibre of uniform thickness. This protein is auto-absorbable and need not be removed after wound healing. Silk grafts have been used successfully to replace cut arteries.
- Silkworm is very much useful for genetic experiments in biotechnology.
- Among vanya silks, Tasar silk fabrics in exotic designs are produced by handlooms. They are Gicha-noil, Tasar plain, Cotton-Tasar blend, Tasar-mulberry blend, and peduncle fabric.
- Muga silk cloth is very largely used by Assamese women in Sarees.
- Eri spun silk is used for dress materials and the coarse variety for making scarves, cheddar, shawls and quilts.
Stages of Silk Production
- The silk moth lays 300 to 500 eggs.
- The silk moth eggs hatch to form larvae or caterpillars, known as silkworms.
- The larvae feed on Mulberry leaves.
- Having grown and mounted several times, the silkworm extrudes a silk fibre and forms a net to hold itself.
- It swings itself from side to side, distributing the saliva that will form silk.
- The silk solidifies when comes in contact with air.
- The silkworm spins approx 1 mile of filament and completely encloses itself in the amount of usable quality silk in each cocoon is small.
Sericulture in India
India has a rich and complex history of silk production and its silk trade which dates back to the 15th century. The sericulture industry provides employment to approximately 8.8 million persons in rural and semi-urban areas in India. Of these, a sizeable number of workers belong to the economically weaker sections of society, including women.
India’s traditional and culture-bound domestic market and an amazing diversity of silk garments that reflect geographic specificity have helped the country to achieve a leading position in the silk industry. India has the unique distinction of being the only country producing all five known commercial silks, namely, Mulberry, Tropical Tasar, Oak Tasar, Eri and Muga, of which Muga which is produced only in India with its golden yellow glitter is a prerogative of India.
Important Types of Silk in India
India is the second-largest producer of Silk after China in the world. There are five types of Silk produced in India which are –
- Mulberry Silk
- Tropical Tasar
- Oak Tasar
Among the different varieties of silk produced in 2021-22, Mulberry accounted for 73.97% of production, Tasar 4.20%, Eri 21.10 and Muga 0.73% of the total raw silk produced in India.
Types of Silkworm
In India, Silk is produced from the cocoons of five different types of silkworms. These are responsible for Mulberry Silk, Tasar silk, Oak Tasar silk, Eri silk and Muga silk.
|Mulberry Silk||Bombyx Mori L.|
|Tasar Silk||Antheraea mylitta|
|Oak Tasar Silk||Antheraea Proyeli J.|
|Eri Silk||Philosamia Ricini|
|Muga Silk||Antheraea assamensis|
Types of Silkworm PPT
FAQs on Type of Silk and Silkworms – Sericulture in India
How many types of silkworms are there?
There are five types of silkworms according to Indian Silk – Mulberry Silkworm, Tasar silkworm, Oak Tasar silkworm, Eri silkworm and Muga silkworm.
What are the types of non-mulberry silkworms?
Types of non-mulberry silkworms are the Tasar silkworm, Oak Tasar silkworm, Eri silkworm and Muga Silkworm.
What are the uses of Silk?
The Uses of the Silk are –
1. It is Eco-friendly, Biodegradable and Self-sustaining material.
2. It is smooth, lustrous and durable.
3. Raw Silk is used for clothing such as shirts, suits, ties, blouses, Pajamas, Jackets, etc.
4. Hand-spun mulberry silk is used for making comforters and sleeping bags.
5. Knitted materials from silk fibres i.e. socks, stocking are very costly and possess a good market.
What are the types of protein present in the Silk?
Silk is made up of two proteins – Sericin and fibroin.
what is Moriculture?
Moriculture is a part of sericulture that involves the cultivation of mulberry plants whose leaves are used as silkworm feed.
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