Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is an Autonomous and apex body that comes under the Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE), Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, the Government of India. In this post, we are providing students with free notes, pdfs and important questions on the topic ‘Structure and Functions of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)’ for India’s top government exams like UPSC CSE, State PCS and ASRB AO and F&AO.
Structure and Functions of ICAR (Indian Council of Agricultural Research) – Notes
The Indian National Agricultural Research and Education Systems (NARES) is one of the largest scientific communities in the World with respect to human resource, infrastructure, research, education and frontline extension network. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is the apex body of this National Agricultural Research and Education System and was established on 16 July 1929 as the Imperial Council of Agricultural Research. ICAR is an autonomous organization under the administrative control of the Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE), Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare, Government of India. With its headquarters in New Delhi, ICAR coordinates, guides and manages research, education and extension in agriculture and allied sectors. It has a vast network of 102 research institutes including 4 Deemed to be Universities, 11 zonal coordination centres of Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) named as Agricultural Technology Applications Research Institutes (ATARIs), 70 agricultural universities or universities with agriculture faculty and 721 KVKs spread across states and union territories of the country.
important points to remember – Structure and Functions of ICAR
|ICAR||Indian Council of Agricultural Research|
|Feature||World’s largest network of agricultural research and education institutes|
|Body||Autonomous and Apex body|
|Concerned Ministry||Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, GOI|
|Earlier name||Imperial Council of Agricultural Research|
|establishment date||16th July 1929|
|Head Quarter||Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi|
|Role||coordinating, guiding and managing research and education in agriculture including horticulture, fisheries and animal sciences in the entire country.|
|Units||101 ICAR institutes and 71 agricultural universities|
Structure of ICAR
- ICAR is the apex body for regulating, supervising and leading research and education in agriculture, including horticulture, animal sciences and fisheries in the entire country.
- It works under the Ministry of Agriculture. At present, Shri Narendra Singh Tomar is the President of ICAR.
- The Union Minister of Agriculture is the President of the ICAR.
- The Principal Executive Officer of the ICAR is the Director-General, who is also the Secretary to the Government of India in the Department of Agricultural Research and Education.
- The whole of the ICAR is divided into The General Body and the Governing Body.
- The General Body of the ICAR Society is the supreme authority of the ICAR and the minister for Agriculture heads it.
- The General Body members are the Ministers for agriculture, animal husbandry and fisheries, and the senior officers of the various state governments, representatives of parliament, industry, education institutes, scientific organization and farmers.
- The governing body is the chief executive and decision-making authority of the ICAR. it is headed by the Director-General.
- It consists of eminent agricultural scientists, educationists, legislators and representatives of the farmers.
- The Governing Body is assisted by the Standing Finance Committee, National Agricultural Education Accreditation Board, Regional Committee, Policy and planning committee, several Scientific Panels, and Publications Committee.
- In the scientific matters, the Director-General is assisted by 8 Deputy Directors-General, one each for –
- Crop Sciences
- Natural Resource Management
- Agricultural Engineering
- Agricultural Education
- Agricultural Extension
- The present chairman (General Director) of ICAR and Secretary of DARE is Dr Trilochan Mohapatra.
- The present Secretary of ICAR and Additional Secretary of DARE
- The few important ex-officio members are:
- Finance Member or Financial Advisor – Dr T. V. Somanathan
- Alternate Financial Advisor – Shri Bimbadhar Pradhan
- NITI Ayog Secretary – Amitabh Kant
- Secretary of Agriculture – Shri Sanjay Agarwal
- Secretary of ICAR member secretary – Sanjay Singh
Role of ICAR
The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has contributed to the science-led growth and development of agriculture in the country. Its important roles are:
- Leading Green Revolution in India
- Encouraging quality in higher education in agriculture
- Bringing innovation to areas of science and technology development
Functions of ICAR
- it plans, supports and promotes the Primary Sector (Agriculture, Animal Science, Agroforestry, Fisheries and Allied Sciences) and coordinates education and research and its utilization in the primary sector.
- It acts as the clearinghouse for research and general information related to agriculture, fishery, animal husbandry, home science, agroforestry, and allied sciences through its publications and information system and establishing & promoting technology programs.
- it offers, undertakes and promotes consultancy services in education, training, research, and distribution of information in agriculture, fisheries, animal science, home science, agroforestry, and other allied sciences.
- To look into the problems related to broader areas of rural development in agriculture, including post-harvest technology, by developing some cooperative programs with the help of other organizations like the Indian Council of Social Science Research, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, State Agricultural Universities, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, etc.
Initiatives of ICAR
- Set up a Farmers’ innovation fund
- To promote Organic Farming and reduce the use of pesticides and fertilizers, ICAR is developing nano-fertilizers and nano-pesticides.
- created a link between 105 startups and farmers to encourage the use of technology in the farm sector.
- Farmers’ Science Congress – It was inaugurated in 2020 for the first time in the 107 years of history of the Indian Science Congress highlighting the importance of farmers’ innovations and their scientific validity. The theme of the Indian Science congress in 2020 was “Science & Technology: Rural Development”.
- Organic Farming – ICAR has validated 51 integrated farming systems to help increase farm income and has developed 45 different organic farming models suitable for different agro-climatic regions.
- Attracting and retaining Youth in Agriculture (ARYA) – A programme named ARYA is also being implemented to improve rural bio-economy and attract youth to agriculture.
Milestones of ICAR
- Initiation of the first All-India Co-ordinated Research Project on Maize in 1957.
- Status of Deemed University accorded to IARI in 1958.
- Establishment of the First State Agricultural University on land grant pattern at Pantnagar in 1960.
- Placement of different agricultural research institutes under the purview of ICAR in 1966.
- Creation of the Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE) in the Ministry of Agriculture in 1973.
- Opening of the first Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) at Puducherry (Pondicherry) in 1974.
- Establishment of Agricultural Research Service and Agricultural Scientists’ Recruitment Board in 1975.
- Launching of the Lab-to-Land Programme and the National Agricultural Research Project (NARP) in 1979.
- Initiation of Institution-Village Linkage Programme (IVLP) in 1995.
- Establishment of National Gene Bank in New Delhi in 1996.
- The ICAR was bestowed with the King Baudouin Award in 1989 for its valuable contribution to ushering in the Green Revolution.
- Again awarded King Baudouin Award in 2004 for research and development efforts made under partnership in Rice Wheat Consortium.
- Launching of the National Agricultural Technology Project (NATP) in 1998 and the National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP) in 2005.
Significant Achievements of ICAR 2019-2021
- To provide Food and Nutritional security to all the citizens, ICAR released 562 new high yielding varieties of field crops (Cereals 223, oilseeds 89, pulses 101, forage crops 37, fibre crops 90, sugarcane 14 and potential crops 8) during 2019-21.
- To achieve malnutrition free India (Kuposhan Mukta Bharat), 21 biofortified varieties of different crops rich in Fe, Zn, protein, pro-vitamin A etc. have been developed during 2019-21.
- From 2019 to 2021, 2.30 lakh quintals of breeder seed of 1330 varieties in 55 field crops were produced and supplied as per indent for downstream multiplication to produce foundation and certified seeds by the public and private seed production agencies for use by farmers.
- 89 varieties of horticultural crops were developed and identified for cultivation in different agro-climatic conditions.
- To help horticultural revolution in the country, 67.44 tons of breeder/truthfully labelled seed of vegetables and spices, 4975.58 tons of tuber crops, 30.82 lakh root cuttings, 30.83 lakh quality planting materials of perennial crops and 2941 quintals of mushroom spawn were produced during 2019-21.
- Development of biocontrol agent Trichoderma “FUSICONT” for the treatment of Banana plantation affected due to TR-4 banana fusarium wilt.
- Developed the packaging and precooling protocol for transport of bananas through the sea route that is able to keep the fruits fresh for 40-50 days. This technology reduces transport costs by 80% of air freight.
- Developed a digital seed portal integrating with the YONO Krishi app of SBI.
- Developed genomic resources of 16 different commodities including whole-genome sequences of two crops, two fish, one insect species, ten microbes and one pathogen species.
- Eight Genes responsible for specific agronomic traits were identified in six crops by allele mining and gene-based association analysis, of which one gene [rice SHMT3] was validated by genetic transformation.
- Chromohalobacter salexigens ANJ 207 isolated from vaporized water salt crystal identified to contain salt & drought tolerance genes, which can be prospected for abiotic stress.
- Focused on Genome editing for enhanced productivity and Stress Tolerance. [Genome Editing is a precision mutagenesis tool for genetic improvement of crops.]
- The OsCKX2 (Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase2) gene catalyses the degradation of active cytokinin and thus reduces the grain number.
- The DROUGHT AND SALT TOLERANCE (DST) gene, a Zinc finger transcription factor that negatively regulates salt tolerance, was edited by using CRISPR-Cas9 in MTU1010. Three homozygous Transgene free mutants were developed with both seedling stage and reproductive stage tolerance to salinity stress.
- Developed four high yielding backyard poultry varieties namely Janapriya, CARI Saloni, CARI Gracy and a multi-coloured turkey variety.
- For the first time in India, 3 breeds of dogs (Rajapalayam, Chippiparai and Mudhol Hound) were also registered and gazette notified. These breeds of dogs are suitable for guarding, hunting and shepherding.
- More than 55000 Germplasm (semen doses and somatic cells) added to National Gene Bank.
- Development of high-density DNA Chips for cattle, buffalo, goat, camel and poultry for genomic selection.
- Designer egg production: iron-enriched (15% higher iron contents) and low cholesterol gees were produced.
- DAC technology was developed for efficient utilization of poultry excreta for the generation of green energy and organic compost.
- Ten disease diagnostic kits were developed:
- Indirect ELISA kit for detection of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) virus antibody;
- Monoclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA for the detection of Brucella antibodies in bovines;
- Japanese Encephalitis (JE) IgM ELISA Kit for detection of JE antibody in pigs;
- Bluetongue (BT) sandwich ELISA kit for detection of BTV antigen;
- Indirect ELISA Kit for Avian influenza (Antibody detection)
- Latex Agglutination Test for serodiagnosis of Listeriosis;
- Recombinant protein-based ELISA kit for diagnosis of Equine Infectious Anaemia;
- Recombinant protein-based ELISA kit for diagnosis of Glanders;
- Japanese Encephalitis Virus Antibody Test Kit, iELISA for equids and pigs;
- Recombinant antigen-based Latex agglutination test for serodiagnosis/surveillance of Bovine Leptospirosis.
- Lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Cattle in 18 states and African swine fever (ASF) in domestic pigs in 4 states (Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Assam and Manipur) reported for the first time in India.
- The Fisheries Research Institutes under the ICAR have developed breeding and seed production technologies for 7 food fishes and 12 ornamental fishes during 2019-21 for aquaculture diversification and enhancing the income of the fish farmers.
- Developed improved/new aquaculture systems for three-tier seabass farming in cages and intensive rainbow trout culture under Re-circulatory Aquaculture System (RAS) during these two years.
- Developed 9 Multi-enterprise integrated farming system (IFS) models during 2019-21. These IFS models showed enhanced farm productivity and income of small and marginal farmers to the tune of Rs 1.5 – 3.6 lakhs per annum per hectare.
- Eight Integrated Organic Farming Systems (IOFS) models suitable to 7 States (Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Kerala, Meghalaya, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu) have been developed which recorded net income ranging from 0.73 to 1.68 lakh/acre.
- In order to enhance the standards of higher agricultural education, ICAR has introduced the ranking Framework of Agricultural Universities and Guidelines for Accreditation of Higher Agricultural Education Institutions.
- 22 new experiential learning modules specially designed and introduced. so far 485 experiential learning units are operational in the SAUs, which are helping students to learn large-scale production of some agri-inputs/products and business development.
- Netaji Subhash International Fellowship for overseas doctoral degree programme enhanced from 25 to 50 slots. The international fellowship was provided to 55 professors.
Important ICAR Awards 2021
National Award for Excellence for Agricultural Institutions
|Sardar Patel Outstanding ICAR Institution Award 2021||It is given to two ICAR Institutes/NRC/Project Directorates/National Bureaus (One large and one small Institute each) and one state Agricultural University/DU/CAU for the outstanding performance by the ICAR Institute, DUs of ICAR, CAUs and State Agricultural Universities.|
Prize: ₹10 Lakh, Citation, Certificate and a Shield
|Chaudhary Devi Lal Outstanding All India Coordinated Research Project Award, 2021||Given for the outstanding performance of AICRPs (All India Coordinated Research Project) in terms of linkages and research output and its impact.|
Prize: ₹1 Lakh, Citation, Certificate and a plaque
|Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya Krishi Vigyan Protshahan Puraskar 2021||Awarded to institutes to promote healthy competition among Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) at the National Level for the application of science and technology in agriculture.|
Prize: 1st – ₹10 Lakhs, 2nd – ₹8 Lakhs, 3rd – 7Lakhs
National Award for Excellence in Agricultural Research
|Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Award for Outstanding Research in Agricultural Sciences, 2021||Awarded to Agricultural Scientists who may have made outstanding contributions in research in agricultural and allied sciences and worked for excellence in agricultural research|
₹5Lakh cash prize, Memento, Certificate & Citation given annually.
|Lal Bahadur Shastri Outstanding Young Scientist Award, 2021||This award is given to talented young scientists to recognize their outstanding original research contributions. A total of four awards, one in each broad discipline category, viz; Crop & Horticultural Sciences, Animal & Fisheries Sciences, Natural Resources Management & Agricultural Engineering and social sciences are given annually under this award.|
|Panjabrao Deshmukh Outstanding Woman Scientist Award, 2021||This Award is exclusively meant for individual Women Scientists.|
|Jawaharlal Nehru Award for PG Outstanding Doctoral Thesis Research in Agricultural and Allied Sciences, 2021||to promote high-quality doctoral thesis research in priority/frontier areas of agriculture and allied sciences.|
The award, given annually, shall comprise 4 awards (From Crop/Horticulture, Natural Resources Management/Agricultural Engineering, Animal/Fisheries Sciences, and Social Sciences) of ₹50,000/- in cash, Citation, Certificate and Silver Medal (gold polished) each for the outstanding original doctoral research work in agriculture and allied sciences.
National Award for Application of Agricultural Technologies
|Nanaji Deshmukh ICAR award for outstanding Interdisciplinary Team Research in Agricultural and Allied Sciences, 2021||For Outstanding Interdisciplinary Team Research in Agricultural and Allied Sciences to recognize, encourage and promote the interdisciplinary research in the country.|
Prize: 5 Lakh Rupee, memento, Certification and Citation
|Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed Award for Outstanding Research in Tribal Farming System, 2021||The award is primarily meant for any person or team (with two or three associates, if any) engaged in applied research and its applications in tribal areas of the country aimed at improving the biological resources and livelihoods or in original work directly applicable to the tribal farming system.|
|Swami Sahajanand Saraswati Outstanding Extension Scientist Award, 2021||This award is exclusively meant for individual extension scientists/teachers for excellence in agricultural extension methodology and education work.|
|Vasantrao Naik Award for Outstanding Research Application in Dry Land Farming systems, 2021||Given annually to promote outstanding research and application in dryland farming systems and water conservation.|
National Award for Innovations and Technology Development by Farmers
|Jagjivan Ram Abhinav Kisan Puruskar/ Jagjivan Ram Innovative Farmer Award, 2021||to recognize the outstanding contributions of innovative farmers for initiatives in development adoption, modification and dissemination of improved technology and practices for increased income with sustainability.|
|N. G. Ranga Farmer Award for Diversified Agriculture, 2021||To recognize the outstanding contribution of innovative farmers for diversified agriculture.|
|Haldar Organic Farmer Award, 2021||To recognize the outstanding contribution of organic farmers.|
|Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay Antyodaya Krishi Puruskar, 2021||To recognize the contributions of marginal, small and landless farmers for developing sustainable integrated models of farming.|
FAQ: Structure and Functions of ICAR
Which type of body is ICAR?
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is an Autonomous and Apex Body.
What are the functions of ICAR?
The main functions of ICAR are:
1. it plans, supports and promotes the Primary Sector (Agriculture, Animal Science, Agroforestry, Fisheries and Allied Sciences) and coordinates education and research and its utilization in the primary sector.
2. It acts as the clearinghouse for research and general information related to agriculture, fishery, animal husbandry, home science, agroforestry, and allied sciences through its publications and information system and establishing & promoting technology programs.
3. it offers, undertakes and promotes consultancy services in education, training, research, and distribution of information in agriculture, fisheries, animal science, home science, agroforestry, and other allied sciences.
4. To look into the problems related to broader areas of rural development in agriculture, including post-harvest technology, by developing some cooperative programs with the help of other organizations like the Indian Council of Social Science Research, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, State Agricultural Universities, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, etc
What is the Role of ICAR?
coordinating, guiding and managing research and education in agriculture including horticulture, fisheries and animal sciences in the entire country.
under which ministry, does ICAR come?
Ministry of Agriculture and Farming Welfare
Who is the Current President of ICAR?
Narendra Singh Tomar